Saturday, August 18, 2018
Odisha (Orissa)

Land


The Mahanadi Delta:

 
The Mahanadi delta has developed in seven different stages. The stages of development have occurred at 26, 18, 15, 9, 6 and 1.5 metre contours. After the seventh stage of delta development there is an upliftment  as a result of which three sets of parallel sand dumes developed along the coast. These raised sand ridges brought changes in the drainage pattern and in deltaic morphology. These parallel sand dumes have the maximum development between the Chilika and the Devi mouth and from there up to north of Dhamra. Several lagoons of varied sizes have been formed. The best examples are the Sar Pata and the Samagara Pata located to the north of Puri.

The Coastal Line:

Odisha (Orissa) has a coastal line of 529 Km from the marshes of Ichhapuram in the south to the east of Subarnarekha in the north-east. The Odisha (Orissa) coast has bulged out in the middle portion from Brahmagiri on Chilika lake in the south-west to Chandbali in the north-east where the Mahanadi, the Brahmani and the Baitarani have formed a combined delta.

The Lakes, Lagoons and Marshes:

The lakes in Odisha (Orissa) can broadly be classified as natural and artificial. They can also be classified on the basis of salt content of the water. The most important reservoirs are at Balimela, on the river Sileru, Rengali over the Brahmani, Mandira over the Sankh, a tributary to the Brahmani near Rourkela and upper Indravati in the river Indravati. Among the natural ones Chilika lake is the most famous and largest of its kind in India.

The area of lake fluctuates in different seasons. During dry weather, it approximates to 891 Km whereas with the intensity and duration of the annual river floods and with the ebb and flow of tides, its area extends to 1,165 Sq Km. Chilika is the one of the most important tourist spot because of its natural beauty. It has also been declared a bird sanctuary by the government of Odisha (Orissa). A lot of birds from as far as Siberia migrate to this lake during the winter. It is also famous for pawn and crab fishing which have a good market in foreign countries. There is a marsh, Udyanakhanda, on the coast at Ichhapur on the boarder of Odisha (Orissa) and Andhra Pradesh whose water is blackish. The Sar lake, the Samagarapata and the Tampara are only three old lagoons initially cut-off from the Bay of Bengal. Lake Anusha is another fresh water lake on the left bank of the Mahanadi.

Bays and Islands:

In Odisha (Orissa) only one Bay, Hukitola bay, off Jambu has been formed. There are only two islands. One, off the Odisha (Orissa) coast and the other off the Mahanadi estuary. These are depositional islands. They are the Shortt's Island and Wheeler Islands off Maipura and Dhamra.

Natural Harbours:

There is only one natural harbour in Odisha (Orissa) i.e. Paradeep. It is the deepest natural port in the whole of India  and provides berthing facilities to ships of more than 60,000 GRT (Gross registered tonnage). Chandbali and Gopalpur are medium ports. Dhamra is a minor fishing port.

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