Orissa was originally inhabited by the aboriginal tribes, the Buiyas and
Gonds. They confined themselves to the forest and hills when the Dravidian race
settled here. Orissa was known as Kalinga in the early period. Kalinga is
related with the greatest Mauryan empire ruler Ashoka who on seeing the horrors
of war in his battle with the Kalingan army abandoned warfare and, embraced
Buddhism. In the second century AD Kharavela established a strong rule . The
Guptas dominated over this region in about the 4th century AD. Till the 10th
century Orissa witnessed the rule of the Bhaumakara dynasty, followed by the
Soma dynasty. From the 11th to 12th century. The Gangas became prominent. The
Muslims Sultanate their influence on Orissa during the 13th and 14th centuries.
This continued till 1568. This was followed by the rule of the Mughals which lasted
till the death of Aurangzeb. After his death the Mughal power which declined
bringing in the influence of the Nawab off Bengal who ruled it till he ceded
this territory over Orissa began in about 1803 AD when the Marathas were suppressed
by the diplomatic treaty's of the East India Company. It was only in 1949 that
the state of Orissa attained its present status.