|
|
|
|
logo
Friday, August 18, 2017
FOLLOW US ON
Find Us on Facebook Follow Us on Twitter Follow Us on Google Plus Youtube
AUTOMOBILE CITY GUIDE CLASSIFIEDS Cookery Craft JOBS MOVIES NEWS EDUCATION VIDEOS YELLOWPAGES Real Estate MORE
 
 

 

Orissa

 Land
 History
 People
 Festivals
 Economy
 Arts
 Tourism
 Tell A Friend
 Feedback
 Major Cities
 Bhubaneswar
 Rourkela

Land

 Land | Climate | Environmental DegradationNatural Vegetation | Districts

Land - Coastal Plains | Middle Mountainous Country | Plateaus and Rolling up Lands

Area 

: 155,707 SqKm

 

Capital   : Bhubaneswar
Language    : Oriya 
Population 

Males

Females

: 36,706,920

: 18,612,340

:18,094,580

Literacy Rate : 63.61%
Districts   : 30

Orissa extends from 17o 49'N to 22o 34'N latitude and from 81o 29'E to 87o 29'E longitude on the eastern coast of India. It has an area about 155,707 Sq Km. according to the Census of India 1991. It is bounded by West Bengal in north-east, Bihar in the north, Madhya Pradesh in the west, Andhra Pradesh in the south and the Bay of Bengal in the east. Orissa was separated from Bihar and came into existence on 1 April 1936. The capital was established at the historic city of Cuttack, located at the apex of the Mahanadi delta. In 1956, it shifted to Bhubaneswar, a planned modern town of the post-independence period.

Physiographically, Orissa can be divided into three broad regions 1) The Coastal plains, (2) The Middle mountainous country (3) The Plateaus and rolling up lands. 

Coastal Plains:

The coastal plains of Orissa stretch on the eastern coast of India from the Subarnarekha in the north-east to the Rushikulya in the south-west. This fertile region is known as the 'rice bowl' of Orissa. This is narrow in the north, widest in the middle, narrowest in the Chilika coast and broad in the south.

The coastal plain is a gift of six major rivers. The formation of the coastal plains depends on the rivers and their catchment's area. The rivers are: From north to the south, the Subarnarekha, the Burhabalanga, the Baitarani, the Brahmani, the Mahanadi and the Rushikulya. Most of the rivers have failed to develop true deltaic characteristics because of the strong off shore current which moves from Chennai to the Andhra coast and passes through Orissa coast.  

According to the location, the coastal plain can be divided into three sub regions 

a)  The north coastal plains - the deltas of the Subarnarekha and the Burhabalanga upto the river Baitarani

b) The middle coastal plains - the combined deltas of the Baitarani, the Brahmani and Mahanadi

c) The southern coastal plains - the Rukshikulya plains, it can be divided into three zones parallel to the shoreline

 i) The salt track along the coast.

 ii) The arable tract or rice country in the middle

 iii) The sub-montane tract to the west

The Salt tract:

The salt tract is a narrow belt which stretches just beyond the shore line for about 4.8 to 9.6 Km in land. In many places it is impregnated with salt and is completely deprived of agriculture. The innumerable sluggish and blackish streams make the area difficult to traverse. In the Mahanadi delta, this salt tract is covered with tidal forest known as the  "Little Sunderbans", off Paradeep-Dhamra coast. In the Devi-Daya sector, Casuarina forests and plantations are found. The forest belt all along the coast merges with a narrow belt of pasture.

The Arable tract:

wayside villageThe grass belt merges into the vast plains. The endless stretches of rice lands is the fundamental characteristic. Most of these places are occupied by village sites so as to be free from the annual inundation. The rivers have formed levees and during high floods they inundate vast areas, causing grave danger to human lives, cattle population and agriculture parts of this arable tract are protected from floods and are irrigated by gravity. 

This is the richest part of the whole of Orissa as far as agriculture is concerned.

The Sub montane tract:

This is the meeting zone of the arable tract and the spurs of the Eastern Ghats. It is termed as the 'zone of transition'. Soil erosion is rampant here. Under this predominating red soil, blocks of laterite are buried and at times they crop up to the surface, turning the area barren and desolate. In this zone low level laterites are formed. But patches of fertile area are not uncommon having rich vegetation. The natural vegetation varies from prickly thorns and stunted shrubs to Sal forests. The absence of a coastal forest belt is most striking. This is because of the lack of a marshy  strip due to higher orography.

The Mahanadi Delta:

The Mahanadi delta has developed in seven different stages. The stages of development have occurred at 26, 18, 15, 9, 6 and 1.5 metre contours. After the seventh stage of delta development there is an upliftment  as a result of which three sets of parallel sand dumes developed along the coast. These raised sand ridges brought changes in the drainage pattern and in deltaic morphology. These parallel sand dumes have the maximum development between the Chilika and the Devi mouth and from there up to north of Dhamra. Several lagoons of varied sizes have been formed. The best examples are the Sar Pata and the Samagara Pata located to the north of Puri.

The Coastal Line:

Orissa has a coastal line of 529 Km from the marshes of Ichhapuram in the south to the east of Subarnarekha in the north-east. The Orissa coast has bulged out in the middle portion from Brahmagiri on Chilika lake in the south-west to Chandbali in the north-east where the Mahanadi, the Brahmani and the Baitarani have formed a combined delta.

[Back]

[next]


QUICK LINKS - WEBINDIA123.COM
CAREER OPTIONS
DATES AND EVENTS
INSTITUTES IN INDIA
STUDY ABROAD
UK, USA, Canada
CLASSIFIEDS
JOBS
MATRIMONIAL
ASTROLOGY
GORGEOUS CELEBRITIES
VIDEOS
E-CARDS
BEAUTY AND STYLE
HEALTH
COMMUNITY
FOOD
YOGA
CRAFTS
GARDENING
PHOTOS
Shopping
DEALS AND DISCOUNTS
YELLOW PAGES
TOUR PACKAGES
POCKET DICTIONARY
EVENTS
NEWS
WORLD TIME
DONATE BLOOD
AUTOMOBILE
CITY GUIDE
DANCE
FESTIVAL
FINANCE

GOVERNMENT

HISTORY
INDIAN CRAFTS
INDIA FACTS
law
MEDICINE
MUSIC
NRI
PERSONALITIES
RELIGION
SPICES
SPORTS
TOURISM
WILDLIFE
WOMEN
Kochi Biennale 2014
Andaman and Nicobar
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Jammu and Kashmir
Manipur
Rajasthan
Andhra Pradesh
Daman and Diu
Jharkhand
Meghalaya
Sikkim
Arunachal Pradesh
Delhi
Karnataka
Mizoram
Tamil Nadu
Telangana
Assam
Goa
Kerala
Nagaland
Tripura
Bihar
Gujarat
Lakshadweep
Orissa
Uttar Pradesh
Chandigarh
Haryana
Madhya Pradesh
Pondicherry
Uttaranchal
Chhattisgarh
Himachal Pradesh
Maharashtra
Punjab
West Bengal

Copyright 2000- Suni Systems (P) Ltd.
All rights reserved