Monday, October 15, 2018
Odisha (Orissa)

Land



Climate

Odisha (Orissa), on the eastern sea board of India, enjoys a tropical monsoon type of  climate like most other parts of the country. Its annual average rainfall is about 200cm. The south-west monsoon normally sets in between 5th June in the coastal plain, and by 1st July the whole of the state is under the full sway of the south-west  monsoon.

By 15th October, the south-west monsoon withdraws completely from Odisha (Orissa). Odisha (Orissa), on the eastern coast of India, is not directly influenced by south-west monsoon branch from the Bay of Bengal like the west coast, but the annual cyclones from the Bay of Bengal influence it and bring copious rain with two seasonal peaks, July-August and October-November. During the winter, except Northern Odisha (Orissa), all other parts remain almost dry.

Rainfall

Monsoon rainfall is of highest importance as it directly controls the crop condition in Odisha (Orissa). Monsoon rainfall is considered 'high' when it is above 140cm and 'low' when it is less than 120 cm as this is barely sufficient for a good paddy harvest. Winter rainfall helps the growth of the second crop in Odisha (Orissa) and hence is of importance. A total rainfall of above 5 cm during the winter has been taken to be 'high' while less than 2.5cm is 'low' in Odisha (Orissa).

Cyclones

Flood and drought are common to many states in India, but only a few states are subject to cyclones and tornado. Odisha (Orissa) is one of the few. Cyclone has in recent years become a regular feature like flood and drought.

 The cyclonic storms during the monsoon which originate in the Bay of Bengal often cross the east coast between Paradeep and Chandbali and make a north-west ward journey. They proceed over Kendujhar and head towards Sambalpur and then decrease in intensity. There are two cyclonic peaks in their occurrence, one during May-July and the other during October-November. As far as the periodicity of the occurrence of the storms is concerned, the maximum number of cyclones occurred during south-west monsoon period (154) followed by the post-monsoon period of the north-east monsoon (70) and pre-monsoon period (57).

Seasonal Divisions

Odisha (Orissa) experiences three main seasons, but the year is locally divided into six seasons.

  1. Grishma (Summer), Baisakha and Jyestha (mid-April to mid-June)

  2. Barsa (Rainy season), Ashadha and Sravana (mid-June to mid-August)

  3. Sharad (Autumn), Bhadraba and Aswina (mid- August to mid-October)

  4. Hemanta (Winter), Kartika and Margasira (mid-October to mid-December)

  5. Sisira (Winter), Pausa and Magha (mid-December to mid-February)

  6. Basanta (Spring), Falguna and Chaitra (mid-Feb to mid-April

These six local seasons are grouped into three main seasons:

Basanta and Grishma (Summer)

Barsa and Sharad (Rainy season)

Hemanta and Sisira (Winter)

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