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Languages of India

India is rich in languages. There are a quite a number of languages spoken in India. Some of these languages are accepted nationally while others are accepted as dialects of that particular region. 

The Indian languages belong to four language families namely Indo-European, Dravidian, Austroasiatic (Austric) and Sino-Tibetan. Majority of India's population are using Indo-European and Dravidian languages. The former are spoken mainly in northern and central regions and the latter in southern India. Some ethnic groups in Assam and other parts of eastern India speak Austric languages. People in the northern Himalayan region and near the Burmese border speak Sino-Tibetan languages.

The written forms of language or scripts come from an ancient Indian script called Brahmi. 

India has 22 officially recognised languages. But around 33 different languages and 2000 dialects have been identified in India. Hindi, in the Devanagari script is the official language of the Federal government of India. English is an associate official language. Sanskrit, the classical language of India, represents the highest achievement of the Indo-Aryan Languages. The beginning of Sanskrit literature may be traced back to Rig Vedic period.  It is the oldest literary language of India, which is more than 5,000 years old and the basis of many modern Indian languages including Hindi and Urdu. Its earliest dialect form, Vedic was spoken by the Aryans. All the classical literature and the Indian epics have been written in Sanskrit.

List of languages recognized by the Indian Constitution

Languages

Official Language of

Spoken by

Assamese

Assam

15 million

Bengali

Tripura & West Bengal

67 million

Bodo

Assam

 

Dogri

Jammu and Kashmir

 

Gujarati

Dadra and Nagar Haeli, Daman and Diu & Gujrat

43 million

Hindi

Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bihar, Chandigarh, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh & Uttaranchal

180 million

Kannada

Karnataka

35 million

Kashmiri

 

 

Konkani

Goa

 

Maithili

Bihar

22 million

Malayalam

Kerala & Lakshadweep

34 million

Manipuri (Meithei)

Manipur

 

Marathi

Maharashtra

65 million

Nepali

Sikkim

 

Oriya

Orissa

30 million

Punjabi

Punjab

26 million

Sanskrit

 

 

Santhali

 

 

Sindhi

 

 

Tamil

Tamil Nadu & Pondicherry

66 million

Telugu

Andhra Pradesh

70 million

Urdu

Jammu and Kashmir

46 million

List of other languages of India

Languages Language of Spoken by
Awadhi (sub-variety of Hindi)   20 million

Bhili

Bhil tribals

 

Bhojpuri (sub-variety of Hindi)

Bihar

23 million

Bundeli (sub-variety of Hindi)

 

 

Chhattisgarhi (sub-variety of Hindi)

Chhattisgarh

11 million

Deccani

 

11 million

Gondi

Gond tribals

 

Haryanvi (sub-variety of Hindi)

Haryana

13 million

Hindustani (mixture of Hindi and Urdu)

Northern part of India

 

Kanauji (sub-variety of Hindi)

Uttar Pradesh

 

Kodava

Kodagu (Karnataka)

 

Kutchi

Kutch (Gujarat)

 

Magahi (sub-variety of Hindi)

southern Bihar

11 million

Marwari (sub-variety of Hindi)

Rajasthan

12 million

Portuguese

Partly in Goa, Daman and Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli

 

Sikkimese

Sikkim

 

Tibetan

Tibet (Kashmir)

6 million

Tulu

Tulu people (Karnataka & Kerala)

 

 
 
     
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