Sunday, December 10, 2023


▪ Introduction ▪ Socio-Economic Structure ▪ Cultural Complexity
▪ Community Laws ▪ Tribal Settlements ▪ Trends after partition

Trends After Partition

The partition of Punjab left a very deep mark upon the social and economic life of its villages. The older patterns gave way to new, and the long preserved purity of village life was disturbed. Millions of uprooted Sikhs and Hindus came and settled down here and started afresh. At present almost every fifth Punjabi is a rehabilitated refugee. The exogamous character of the villages, the inter-community relationships, the old traditions of social behaviour and the economic inter-dependence have all changed.

The upheaval caused by the partition also changed the pattern of trade and agriculture of  Punjab. Those who migrated from the Rawalpindi and Jhelum districts were mostly traders, shopkeepers and business men by profession. Wherever they settled down in East Punjab, they set up new trade links and re-oriented the shopping and trade centres. Even in the most remote villages new shops sprang up, giving a great impetus to the trade and industry of  Punjab. 

The Sikhs and the Hindus who migrated from Lyallpur, Montgomery and Sheikhupura were experienced agriculturists. They were the people who had cultivated the Bar jungles and made them so rich that the entire region came to be called the granary of  Punjab. They introduced novel ideas and made them practicable in the new settlements. Co-operative farming and gardening has been tried over one-fourth of the total cultivated area in the state. Similarly the work of consolidating fragmented holdings which was progressing very tardily has gathered momentum. Condition of tenancy have improved and the adoption of new techniques in farming has given a fillip to production.

Partition brought about changes in occupational patterns also. Caste hierarchy, for instance, received  a big blow. The so called law caste people who until now had been continuing in their ancestral professions suddenly decided to discard them and take to new ones. This brought about a new awakening among them and they began to make a conscious effort to raise their status.

The Five-Year plans, particularly the community development projects and the national extension schemes, have brought about far-reaching changes in the social and economic life of the village farmer by introducing many novel ideas in his daily life. 

The villages of Punjab have been virtually metamorphosed. Roads have been constructed to link them with urban areas. Opening of new schools in pursuance of literacy campaigns has helped the demolition of blind faith and superstition. Introduction of electricity has opened up new vistas in agriculture and industry, all adding up to greater prosperity. The status of women is also undergoing a change. The Purdah system is dying out and a new social awakening is spreading all over.