Saturday, July 13, 2024


▪ Introduction ▪ Socio-Economic Structure ▪ Cultural Complexity
▪ Community Laws ▪ Tribal Settlements ▪ Trends after partition

The rich and fertile land of the Punjab was the meeting ground of different people and races. Its population descends from various stocks and consists of heterogeneous racial elements. In ancient times it was mostly inhabited by a race whom the Aryans later called Dasyus. They were pushed towards the south by the Indo-Aryans. But a small section of Dasyus remained  in the Punjab. Later on, the Persians, the Greeks, the Parthians, the Scythians, the Kushans, the Huns, the Turks, the Mongols and the Afghans made successive inroads into Punjab and some of them settled there permanently and adjusted themselves to the new social system, adopting  the customs and tradition of the conquered land. They soon merged into the indigenous population and in the process, some of their own cultural traits became part of the culture of the Punjab. The present inhabitants of the Punjab are the descendants of the various racial stocks which entered into it during the different stages of its history. 

Sikh Jats, who belong to the agriculturists class, form the bulk of population of the present Punjabis. They are sturdy, self-willed and industrious and are among the finest peasants of India. They are generally tall and muscular, with well-shaped limbs, an erect carriage and strongly marked and sharp handsome features.

The Khatris and Aroras are next in number. The Khatris, who are generally energetic and educated, are mostly fair-complexioned and have good features. Trade is their main occupation. They claim to be in the direct line of the Kshatriyas of the Aryan race. The Aroras also claim to be of Khatri origin. Next to them in number are the Brahmans and Vaishas, who are split up into several such-castes and are found almost all over Punjab.

Among the minor agricultural tribes, Sainis  and Kambohs are the most prominent ones. They are admirable cultivators, skilful and industrious. The Sainis claim their origin from the Rajputs and some of the Kambohs from "Kamboj Desh" in Afghanistan. The various vagrant tribes of the Punjab, like the Sainis, the Pakhi- Waras, the Bawris, the Bazigars etc. are aboriginal in their origin. They have retained their aboriginal customs and beliefs.