Tuesday, July 5, 2022



The economic life of the Mizos has always been centered around jhum or shifting cultivation.

The crops grown in the jhum are mixed.  The principal crop is paddy and others are maize, cucumber, beans, arum, ginger, mustard, sesame, cotton etc.  After clearing the burnt jhum, seeds for crops other than paddy are sown. Towards the end of April near the full moon time, paddy is sown. Mainly two types of paddy seeds are sown in the same field - early paddy and principal paddy.  Yield of early paddy is rather poor but it ripens early and provides sustenance till the principal paddy is harvested.

There is vast scope for cultivation of tapioca, sugarcane, cotton, pulses and oilseeds in the state. 

Some pulses like cowpea, rice beans and French beans are cultivated in the jhums. Oilseeds crops like sesame, mustard and soybean are growing well in the state. 


In Mizoram the crops totally depend on monsoon water due to non availability of irrigation facilities. Hence yield per hectare is quite low. Champhai, North Vanlaiphai, Mat valley are some of the areas taken up for irrigation projects. 


According to the demarcation of 15 agro-climatic regions in the country,  Mizoram falls under the Eastern Himalayan Zone.  It enjoys a tropical and sub-tropical climate where most of the horticultural crops flourish.  Of the total 21 lakh hectare of land in the state, about 4.40 lakh hectare are suitable for horticulture. 

In horticulture, the principal crops now grown in Mizoram are orange, banana and pineapple.  In recent years there has been a sharp increase in the area and production of these crops. Of the total area of 21,087 sq km in the state, bamboo orchards occupy an area of 7882 sq km.

The climate in the state is suitable for the cultivation of spices. Ginger, turmeric, chilli, pepper, cinnamon, large cardamom and citronella grow very well in the state.  At present ginger, turmeric and chillies are commonly cultivated. On hill slopes, cinnamon of the wild variety is available in plenty. Large cardamom is thriving well in higher altitudes of 600-1500m. Ginger is traditionally cultivated in the jhum lands.

The state has also good prospects for cash crops like coffee, rubber and tea.  Rubber grew indigenously in Mizoram as the land and the climate are suitable for rubber cultivation. The Rubber Board has opened a sub-station at Kolasib.  Tea is traditionally grown in Mizoram in small homestead plots for family consumption only.  The agro-climatic condition of the state is suitable for tea.