Agriculture in Gujarat forms a vital sector of the state's economy. It
has to provide the required food grains for the state's population and
raw materials for most of the agro-based industries. Unsuitable climatic
conditions in some parts and rocky terrain with thin or no soils in others,
have limited the area suitable for cultivation. The difficulty of drainage
in coastal areas and in the two Ranns has made a large part of the state
The state's agricultural productivity is low.
are poor and in most cases do not even approach the low level of average
yield for the country. Low yields result from poor soils, inadequate rainfall,
frequent droughts and floods, bad drainage and undeveloped irrigation
facilities. A characteristic feature of the state's agriculture is its
cropping pattern un-proportionately dominated by cash crops. The high
yield of cotton in fact the highest in the country, reflects the overall
emphasis on cash crops, which have claimed the best agricultural land.
A higher percentage of the land is used for cultivation
in central Gujarat. Kaira, Baroda, Broach and Surat districts are the
main contributors to the agricultural production of the state. Valsad
has become India's first integrated horticulture district.
The state produces a large variety of crops and its cropping
pattern reflects the spatial variations in climate and topography. Groundnut
(highest production in the country), cotton, Tobacco (second highest production
in the country), isabgul, cumin sugarcane, Jawar, Bajra, Rice, Wheat,
Pulses, Tur and Gram are the important crops of Gujarat. Another cash
crop which has recently entered the field though in a few selected localities
is banana. Plenty of mangoes for export as well as home consumption are
part of cash crops.
Honey, wax and bamboo are produced in fair quantities
in different forests and medicinal herbs and fruits like Jamun and guava
are produced in plenty. Forests also yield considerable quantities of
teak, Khair, sadad, hadariyo, manual bamboos and such good quality of