The region has variety of natural vegetation ranging from
tropical mixed forests of the Garo hills to pure stands of pine forests in
the higher elevation of the plateau. The region has been adversely affected by
reckless cutting, grazing and jhum cultivation. In some areas these forests have
been completely destroyed while others due to inaccessibility have retained
their original character. These have become protected forests.
Sal, pine, bamboo etc are important varieties of the flora in
the plateau. In the western part of Meghalaya, the northern and southern
foothills with warm and humid climate are characterised by dense tropical mixed
forests with Sal (Shorea robust) and bamboo as main species of trees. The most
important Bamboo species are Dalu and Muli. Other species that are found in the
region are Gurga, Haldu, Canes, Agariu etc. In the higher altitudes, in the
Tura range, temperature forests are found with pines and firs as common
Mixed tropical hardwood forests are found in northern and
southern parts of the central upland. The main species are Sal, Nahar, Champa,
Gomari etc. Bamboo thickets, Canes and wild bananas occur in many of the hill
slopes in the region. Rolling grasslands are found in abundance in the elevation
ranging from 900m-1350m above sea level. Pine forests are found above 1350m.
Main species of pine are found mixed with willow, mangnolia, oak etc.
The important crops of the state are potato, rice, maize,
pineapple, banana etc.