Climate of Meghalaya plateau is influenced by elevation and
distribution of physical relief. On the basis of weather condition, the
Meghalaya plateau has 4 distinct seasons: They are
(a) The rainy season from May to early October.
(b) The cool season from early October to November.
(c) The cold season from December to February.
(d) The warm season or hot season from March to April .
this period the entire plateau witness strong winds. This is due to northward
migration of jet streams from the Gangetic plain to Tibetan plateau and
development of low pressure in the Tibetan plateau at this time of the year.
The western part of the Garo hills is relatively lower in
elevation as compared to Khasi and Jaintia hills. Garo hills experienced higher
temperature conditions and humidity from February to October. April and May are
the warmest months and January is the coldest month. The nature of elevation and
slope has also influenced the distribution of rainfall. The rainfall is heaviest
in the south-eastern Garo hills and decreases in the central regions and in the
The Khasi and Jaintia hills experiences a moderate climate
because of higher elevation. Warm and humid conditions are prevalent in the
foothills region in the south and sub-montane region in the north and central uplands. The plateau experiences a
temperature of 24o c throughout the year.
The southern parts of the plateau has the
region. It receives the heaviest rainfall, an annual average of 12670 mm. This is
due to its location at the head of Bangladesh plains. The south west monsoon
strikes these margins as it raises abruptly from the plains. The vertical
movement of this moist monsoon streams precipitate heavily in the escarpment
region. This type of rainfall is known as orographic rainfall.
The Khasi and Jaintia hills receive an average of 7700 mm of
rainfall and lies in the rain shadow area. Cherrapunji and Mawsynram lying about
55 Km south of Shillong receives an annual rainfall of about 14,000 mm which is
the highest amount of rainfall in the world.