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Second Trimester

Second Trimester (13-28 weeks) is the most enjoyable time by the pregnant women as they find this time is more easier than the first trimester. During this period, many of the early symptoms of pregnancy like morning sickness and fatigue may usually disappear. You and your baby is undergoing many changes. At this stage the fetus is fully formed and look like a human. All the organs start growing and the baby started moving inside. By the end of the fifth month of pregnancy, you will start to feel the movement of your baby known as quickening. From fifth month onwards, the brain will undergo its most important period of growth. Your abdomen will start expanding and you will look like a pregnant women. At the second half of the pregnancy there may appear stretch marks which may be in pink, red, black in colour depending on the colour of your skin. 

Fourth Month 
At this stage, the fetus is fully formed and looks much more human although his head is still large in proportion to body.  Now the baby is far less likely to be harmed by infections or other drugs. All the organs will start growing and improving their activities. The muscles are developing, so the baby moves much more.  The kidneys are producing urine which is discharged from time to time into the aminotic fluid. Aminotic fluid is also continually added to by seepage through the surface of  the placenta and from the fetal surfaces. The fetus swallows the fluid which is absorbed through his intestine. The fluid is thus being changed continually. The fetus is now practicing breathing movements. A thin, transparent and downy air called lanugo begins to cover him. His eyelashes and eyebrows is forming  and has a bridge to his nose. Teeth are beginning to form in his gums and finger and toe nails are more definite.  The baby has vocal cords and taste buds and can now suck her thumb. The heart is beating about 120 to 160 beats a minute. By the end of this month he weighs 140 gms (approx) and measures about 15-17 cm.

Fifth Month
This is a period of tremendous growth for your baby. The fetus is fully active and you should have felt his movements for the first time as a faint fluttering. He may even react to noises outside the womb. Your baby may suck its thumb. At the time of an  ultra sound scanning, you may able to see the the moving of the baby. He has well - developed lanugo hair over his boy as well as hair appearing on the head. Fat is now being stored beneath your baby's skin. The sense of touch is developed at 17 weeks so it is able to feel its surroundings. By this month, baby's middle ear structures have formed, enabling baby to hear sound. Milk teeth will begin forming under your baby's gums. A greasy white substance called vernix caseosa coats her entire body to protect her skin during its long submersion in amniotic fluid. The blood cells take over for the liver the job of producing blood. At the end of the fifth month of pregnancy your baby is approximately 10-12 inches long and weighs about 340 gm. 

6th month
This month is also considered as a period of rapid growth of baby. Now the baby is fully formed and looks like a miniature human. Your baby's skin seems wrinkled and red. The circulation of the lungs is forming. There have been dramatic development in the thinking part of the brain. His eyes are open which are usually blue in colour and will not change to their final colour until some weeks after the baby is born. Fatty sheaths which transmit electrical impulses along nerves are forming. Meconium, your babyís first stool, is developing. Baby girls will develop eggs in their ovaries during this month. The baby's bones are becoming stronger. A special type of fat is forming to keep your baby warm at birth. You can feel the baby move if you put your hands on your stomach. You may even see shape of a foot or bottom as the baby turns and kicks. By the end of the sixth month, Your, baby will be around 11 to 14 inches long and will weigh about 900 gm. He has a good chance of survival if he should be born now and looked after in a special care baby unit.

Mother's Physical Changes
During the middle months of pregnancy, the expectant mother will probably feel better that she felt in the first trimester. Most of them will enjoy this time.  She may be able to feel the movement of the fetus known as quickening. Morning sickness like nausea and fatigue usually lessen or disappear. You may started gaining weight rapidly. As the babyís growth continues, the expectant motherís uterus expands into the abdominal cavity. By the end of the fifth month of pregnancy, the top of the uterus, called the fundus, reaches the navel. 

The expectant mother may see a yellowish fluid from her breast before breast milk. This is the best time to prepare for breast feeding. Indigestion problems like heartburn, gas and constipation may appear during this time. You may feel shortness of breath as your baby gets bigger, there will be increased pressure on all your organs especially in lungs. Increased sweating may be common. The skin on the abdomen and breast stretches and stretch mark may visible. A dark line will also form from naval down to the middle of the abdomen. Due to the increase in hormone, she may have nose bleeding and her gums may become more spongy and bleed easily. 

Although miscarriage in low-risk pregnancies is rare at this time, women sometimes have other problems in the second trimester, including  high blood pressure, which may be a sign of preeclampsia  sugar in the urine, a sign of gestational diabetes (a form of diabetes associated with pregnancy), iron-deficiency (anemia) etc. You may notice a white-colored vaginal discharge called leukorrhea. It is normal but a colored or bloody discharge may be a signal of possible complications and should be examined immediately.

Take enough iron and other minerals because during your pregnancy, you body needs more iron for developing baby and the placenta and also to keep up with your expanding blood volume. Have iron rich foods which include, lean red meat, fish, lentils,  legumes, spinach etc. Eating well with all the nutrients is very important for this time as your baby is also growing much more rapidly. There is a chance of getting a urinary tract infection may increase. Drink at least eight glasses of water each day. Most of the women may find difficulty in sleeping. Try using extra pillows to get comfortable at night. Put one between your legs as you lie on your side and another one behind your back.

During the regular check ups, the physician will check  the height and weight of mother, the fetal heartbeat, the size, shape and height of the uterus, any swelling of the mother's hands and feet, blood pressure, urine and any other symptoms or discomforts depending on your medical condition.

Questions of
 Questions & Answers
 1.  Posted on : 21.8.2016  By  :  Jyoti Bahoria , Plot. no. 206 shree durga niwas, rewatinagar BESA View Answer (0) Post Answer

I am 30 years of age,I am diagnosed with PCOS last year, I always had regular periods and I am mother of a 4 year old boy my problem is my acne which I may facing since last 5to 6 years and it's recurring,I am fed up of this acne is there any treatment please suggest me It will be of great help.

 2.  Posted on : 6.7.2015  By  :  Poonam , Kolkata View Answer (0) Post Answer

My mother has got a renal mass in her right kidney approx 7cm and what we understood by her reports was that she has tiny multiple cysts in her lower pole, the doctor has told us that it is not malignant and non enhancing, but we have just done a ct scan and blood tests not even any biopsy so how can he be so sure it is not malignant, she seldom gets a lower back painin her right side, we are taking her to another consulting doctor for a second opinion, as to no what should be done, she is also type 2 diabetic

 3.  Posted on : 31.8.2014  By  :  Litu , Bangladesh View Answer (0) Post Answer

Hi, I am from Bangladesh. I donated blood to my wife without knowing the fact that it is dangerous. Now she is pregnant of two months. The blood group of both of us is O+. Could you tell me what risks may occur & what precaution should we take?

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