the region where Buddhism evolved and finds mention in the Vedas, Puranas,
Epics etc. This was one of the most remarkable aspect that makes it an
important region that added to the diverse cultures of the Indian Union.
Human settlement in this region dates back to the prehistoric period and
they led a nomadic life. Bihar forms a part of the Gangetic plain
which was inhabited by people of different races. Great rulers of the
state before the Christian era were Bimbisara, Udayin who founded the
city of Pataliputra. The famous Mauryan emperors along with the Guptas
who under Ashoka had their capital at Patiliputra. Smaller dynasties like
that of the Sungas, Kanva and the Kushanas influenced the regions of Bihar.
During the Medieval period Bihar witnessed the Muslim invasion which was
followed by the rule of local Rajput clans. The first Muslim conqueror
was Mohammad Bin Bakhtiar Khalji. The Tughluqs and then the Mughals followed
The Mughals established a prosperous atmosphere in Bihar.
With the downfall of the Mughals, the Nawabs from Bengal exercised their
rule. The East India Company established its sway over Bihar after the
Battle of Buxar in 1764. The different British attitudes and practices
towards the people led to migration to lands like Africa, South East Asia
etc. Under the British, Bihar was first a part of Bengal Presidency. In
1911, the two states of Orissa and Bihar were separated from Bengal. In
1936,they became separate provinces.
A part of Bihar comprising mainly
forest tracks of Chhotanagpur plateau and Santhal paragana, the homeland
of the tribals became a separate state Jharkhand on November 15th, 2000.