real spirit of a folk-song rests not only in its text but also in its
tune. The popular tunes of Punjabi folk-songs ring with the heart-throbs of the
simple, unsophisticated villagers. These melodies, characteristic of their
deeply-felt emotions are absolutely in tune with their mode of living.
The rhythm and beat of Punjabi folk music is simple. The rhythmic patterns
are determined by the day-to-day activities of the villagers, the sound of the
grinding stone, the drone of the spinning wheel, the creaking of the Persian
wheel, the beat of the horse's hooves etc. These rhythms refined into
symmetrical patterns form the basis of the entire folk music of the Punjab.
There is a widespread variation in the tunes and melodies prevalent in the
different regions of the state. The folk tunes prevalent in the east of the
undivided Punjab are different from those popular in the west. In the west
on the plains of the Sindh Sagar Doab certain folk forms like Mahiya and Dhoola
were very popular. Boli is popular all over the Punjab, though the eastern mode
of performing it is different from the western one. Even in one area the same
song is sung differently by different groups. This element of flexibility in
Punjabi folk music adds a lot of variety to it.
Punjabi folk music is primarily vocal in character and is accompanied by
instruments. It comes so spontaneously to the villager that when he is ploughing
or digging his fields, driving his cart or walking homeward alone he just bursts
into song in a full-throated ecstasy. When women get together and ply the
spinning-wheel they sing alone, in twos and three's or in chorus. They need no
instruments. But for songs which are sung on special occasions, the use of
instruments is essential, particularly the dholak. The dholak is very popular with the Punjabis and is used on all occasions of
social and festive significance. Innumerable memories are associated with its
sound because all gaiety and celebrations of the family include the dholak as
the basic and essential instrument. Sometimes if a dholak is not available,
people improvise one, out of an earthen pitcher which they put upside down and
strike with a stone to keep the beat. This improvisation is quite popular with
young women who sometimes prefer it to the drum and achieve real perfection in
it. Dholak has helped to preserve some of the most valuable traditional songs.
In the evenings, professional singers enliven village platforms. Bhatts and
Dhadis entertain the audiences till very late in the night and keep men and
women of all ages absolutely spell-bound with their ballads. These roving
minstrels are sometimes accompanied by instrumentalists who carry folk instruments
like an Algoza, an Iktara and a Dhad Sarangi and by playing on them
add charm to the recital.
There is an abundance of heroic, devotional and romantic tales in Punjabi
folklore. Tales of Puran Bhagat, Gopi Chand and Hakeekat Rai belong to the
devotional type whereas Raja Rasalu, Sucha Singh Surma and Jeuna Mor belong to
the heroic category. Heer Ranjha, Sassi Punnu, Mirza Sahiban and Sohni Mahiwal
are popular as tales of romance. These sentimental tales are always sung in
typical strains. For every tale, the popular tune is different.
Mirza Sahiban is
sung in long wistful notes and the tune is known as Sad (call). It is a
mournful tune and the singer generally puts one hand on his ear and makes
gestures with the other while he sings.The tune used for Heer Ranjha is different form the one used for Puran
The notes of Sindhu Bhairava raag can be traced in Heer Ranjha while Puran Bhagat is
sung in the musical notes of Asavari and Mand. Sohni Mahiwal and Yusaf Zulaikhan
are sung in Bhairavi raag but the tunes are different.