Tuesday, July 23, 2019
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Hypercalcemia

HYPERCALCEMIA CAUSES SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSIS TREATMENT

Normal calcium level is 9-11 mq/L. When calcium levels in the blood are above 11, it is called Hypercalcemia. Calcium is required for a number of functions in the body such as bone formation, muscle contraction, nerve conduction, clotting of blood, and the release of hormones. 

Calcium is mainly stored in bones. Body calcium is regulated by parathyroid hormone and calcitonin. When calcium levels are low, parathyroid hormone levels is increased. Parathyroid hormone increases the release of calcium from bones and increases the absorption of calcium from the intestines. It also decreases the calcium excretion by the kidneys. Calcitonin is another hormone, produced by the thyroid gland. When calcium levels are elevated, calcitonin levels is released and by negative feedback, calcium levels are lowered by preventing further release of calcium from bones. In Hypercalcemia, this control is thrown off balance. 

Causes
1. overactive parathyroid gland
2. cancer- breast, lung, and bone metastasis
3. other diseases which cause tissue injury such as TB and sarcoidosis
4. medications such as lithium and thiazide diuretics
5. dehydration

Symptoms
1. Loss of appetite
2. excessive thirst 
3. frequent urination
4. nausea, and vomiting
5. constipation
6. abdominal pains
7. muscle weakness
8. joint pains
9. confusion and lethargy





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