2. physical examination
3. calcium levels
4. parathyroid levels
5. chest x-ray, ct scan, MRI- to detect any possible malignancy or granulomatous diseases such as TB or sarcoid
Severe Hypercalcemia needs to be treated in the hospital.
1. IV fluids are used, as are diuretics to keep the kidneys functioning and to flush the excessive calcium out.
2. IV bisphosphonates are used to decrease bone loss.
3. Calcitonin is used to decrease bone reabsorption.
4. Corticosteroids are used to decrease the effect of vitamin D intoxication.
Once calcium levels are decreased below dangerous levels, the cause has to be identified and treated.
A diagnosis such as primary Hyperparathyroidism, if not medically controlled, needs to be treated with surgery.
1. Osteoporosis- bone releases calcium into the blood and becomes weak. This can lead to fractures and loss of height.
2. Kidney stones- crystals are formed in kidneys which can lead to stone formation.
3. Kidney failure
4. Nervous system dysfunction- confusion, dementia, coma which can be fatal
5. Cardiac irregularities