Pruning involves removing any damaged, diseased or dead wood of a rose bush to improve the appearance, stimulate growth and control pests and diseases. Improper/heavy pruning can affect blooming. The how and when of pruning roses is determined by the type of rose. Here we are given few basic steps to prune your rose plant.
Plants are ready to be pruned, when the bush becomes leafless or with a few leaves during the dormant season. Use a sharp knife or pruning shears and remember one thing to cut approximately 1 cm above an outward facing bud. Remove all old, damaged and diseased canes. Take out stems that cross through the centre and thin out the center of the plant. Where canes cross and rub against each other prune out the less healthy cane. Shorten the remaining healthy growth by 1/3rd of its length. Final cuts help to determine the shape of the plant. After pruning clean up the debris and apply a dormant spray to check insects and diseases.Fertilization
Although some roses may flourish without fertilization, they need nutrients for peak performance. So it is usually necessary to apply fertilizer. The three basic nutrients for health growth of any plant Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Potassium is needed in balanced applications. Do not fertilize newly planted roses until after the first bloom. If you want to avoid using chemical fertilizers, you can try these organic alternatives: alfalfa, bone meal, compost, fish emulsion, manure, seaweed or soybean meal. You must follow the application and dosage instructions on the package carefully. Two types of fertilizers are available dry and liquid form. Of all fertilizers, dry fertilizers are the most widely used one. Apply fertilizer when you see new growth. Fertilize a second time when the first flower buds set in. Apply a final fertilizer after two months.Watering
The amount and frequency of application will depend on soil type, bush size, and the rainfall in your area. When watering roses, be sure to soak the soil well; they need more than just light sprays of water. If you live in a dusty area, you will do you plants a great favour by washing off their leaves every week or so. This will also wash away some insect pests. Some other tips include watering in the morning, avoid letting the water come into contact with the leaves and blooms, and providing mulch so that the soil retains its moisture. The use of mulch around roses help to retain soil moisture and help retard weed growth. A mulch is any material such as wood chips, straw, or dry grass clippings. Decorative materials such as shredded hardwood bark or cocoa bean hulls or coconut husks could also be used. When applying any mulch don't pile up on the base of the canes, spread it around, about an inch of the base and should be applied about 2-3 inches deep and replaced as needed.Diseases and Pest Control
Insects and foliage diseases may afflict your roses. There are three diseases that can afflict your roses. Black-spot, Powdery and Rust. For black spot you should thoroughly clean up debris at pruning time, then apply a dormant spray. Resistance varies from one rose variety to the next for powdery mildew. Garden sanitation is best for rust and can be controlled with foliage sprays. Pests can also cause problems for your roses. Aphids, Thrips, Beetles, Borers, Rose midge, caterpillars and worms, Mites are some of the more troublesome rose insects. Natural enemies like lady bugs help keep aphids in check. They effect growth and can deform leaves. Hand picking is the safest control for Beetles, Caterpillars and worms and Borers. To control mites spraying water is the simplest remedial measure. Use a nozzle that produces fine spray, thoroughly wash off the undersides of the leaves. Repeat this method at least three times. Thrips deform flower petals. To control thrips use chemical spray plants always from above, making certain to cover all flowers and opening buds.
Control is easy and prevention is practical with the regular use of chemicals, that controls most fungus diseases and chewing and sucking insects. Regular dusting every week or every 10 days will make the disease-insect problem easy to handle.
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