Friday, September 22, 2023



Uneconomic Holdings

Agriculture has been the sole source of wealth in Bihar. This fact is perhaps one of the chief causes of the state's poverty, as no land can be rich which depends mainly on agriculture. The problem of uneconomic holdings has been compounded by fragmentation i.e. by splitting and separation of the holdings of most cultivators into many tiny plots, adding to the labour of the cultivators and decreasing the efficiency of their operations. Improved methods and machinery are being gradually introduced, but much passive resistance and many conservative prejudices have still to be overcome before the rural classes can be induced to take them.

Within recent years some progress is noticeable . The only practical solution is that, first in increasing the productivity of the available land and second, in creating non-agricultural sources of employment through the development of industries. Agriculture is making progress in every direction. Farming is more scientific, the use of chemical manure is becoming more general, and the rotation of crops better understood. In the context of the predominantly rural character of the economy, national extension services has been developed to bring to the farmer the knowledge of better farming practices together with ready supply of means. The credit for the establishment of such an extension agency goes to the Community Development Programme which was initiated during the First Five year plan period. From the point of view of economic development, community development blocks provide opportunities for integrated rural development and there is provision in the block budget itself for (i) the improvement of agriculture, including provision for minor irrigation, soil conservation, improvement of village forests, animal husbandry and dairying (ii) development of co-operation (iii) village industries (iv) elementary education, especially provision of school buildings for local communities (v) rural water supply and the programme of minimum rural amenities, including construction of approach roads linking each village to the nearest road or railhead.