The infrastructure for the development of industry in Orissa is
available. A combination of coal, iron ore, limestone, bauxite and a host of
other minerals on the one hand and port facilities on the other are the unique
features in Orissa. In addition, the bountiful forest resources and agricultural
products provide ample scope for the development of forest-based and agro-based
The entire industrial structure can be divided into following
a) Large-scale heavy industries,
b) Large-scale industries,
c) Medium industries, and
d) Cottage industries.
Large-scale heavy industries
This category include iron and steel industry,
cement, ferro-maganese, ferro-chrome, galvanised pipe units, steel rolling mills
and fertilizer plants.
Cement grade limestone and clay are the two important raw
materials for the cement industry. The product itself being of low per unit
value, low transport charges in relation to the availability of the raw
materials is an essential requirement. Considering all this, two cement
factories have been located at Rajgangpur and Bargarh. They have an annual
capacity of 771,000 tonnes. The Rajgangpur cement factory is raw material based.
It gets its supplies from the Raibaga, Rajgapur and Panposh area. The Hira cement plant at Bargarh is being expanded. A cement
factory has been established at Rourkela based on slag from the steel plant.
Thus, this solves the problem of slag disposal which was posing an environmental
problem. Another cement factory is operating at Hirakud based on cement grade
limestone from the nearby regions.
Indian Rare Earth
This project was set up in 1978 at Gopalpur by the Atomic Energy
Commission. It is based on illiminite which is found in abundance on the
Gopalpur coast. Gopalpur Port is being developed as an all-weather port to
export rare earth and iron and steel.
Ceramic Glass and Refactory Units
For manufacturing glass, silica and soda ash are mixed and
limestone is added to make glass harder. Maganese dioxide is used to correct the
greenish tint. Other colouring agents like chromites and cobalt are used for
manufacturing glass of special quality. While the raw materials are mostly
'weight losing', the finished products are fragile. Ceramic glass and refractory
units are located at Barang, Khansbahal, Rajgangpur and Latikata. A refractory
and ceramic unit is also operating at Jharmigudi.
Ferro-manganese plants are located at Joda in Kenjhar district
and Rayagada. For these plants adequate supply of raw material is available and
they are ore-based. These plants are also well served by the railways. They get
an adequate supply of hydel power from the Hirakud and Machkund hydro-electric
projects. The products are also suitable for export. A ferro-chrome plant at Jajpur road in
Jajpur district and a ferro-silicon plant at Tiruvali in Koraput district are operating. A pig iron
plant at Badbil is also working in Kendujhar district. All these plants are
ore-based as the ore is bulky and cheap.
aluminum factory was set up at Hirakud during the first plan itself. It is a
joint venture with Canada cheap hydel power is supplied from Hirakud. A cable
factory has also been located there recently which has taken advantage of the
aluminum products of the factory.
Company Limited (NALCO)
Nalcowas set up at Bhubaneswar in 1981 in collaboration
with aluminum pechiney of France. It is an integrated alumnina/aluminium
complex. This plant is one of the most modern in the world and the biggest
in Asia. After it started production, India has not only become self-sufficient
in aluminium production but has started exporting. Port facilities for
export of bauxite, alumina and aluminium are available at Visakhapatnam
Nalco has an alumina plant at Damanjodi for refining
of bauxite ore, with a plant capacity of 0.8 million tonnes per annum.
It is located at the foothills of the Panchpatmali. NALCO's captive
power plant is located at Angul to which 2.4 million tonnes of coal is
being supplied from Talcher.
Other Engineering Industries
Other Engineering Industries are located at
and Bhusandpur. A few railway workshops are located at important
junction like Khurda road, Titlagarsh Bhubaneswar and Kantabanji.
The manufacture of paper pulp is dependent on bamboo pulp as raw
material. Orissa's forests abound in bamboo resources. This raw material
being of the weight-losing type, paper factories are raw -material based.
The orient paper mills of Brajrajnagar is an ideal example. It gets its
cool supplies from Rampur and Hydel power from Hirakud. It has an annual
licensed capacity of 69,400 tonnes. Titagarh paper mill at Chaudwar is
market oriented. This is because it avails itself of the cheap water
transport of the Mahanadi. Its annual capacity is 18,200 tonnes. At
Rayagada another paper mill has been set up because of the availability of
cheap raw material. It has an annual capacity of 18,200 tonnes.