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Qutab-ud-din Aibek

Qutab-ud-din Aibek established himself as the sultan of Delhi at Lahore. He strengthened his position through matrimonial alliances with his rivals. He gave his daughter to Iltumish the foremost of his slaves. Qutab-ud-din died in 1210AD. He had laid the foundation of a new dynasty called the Slave dynasty in 1206AD.


After Qutab-ud-din his son Aram Shah succedded to his throne. He was not able to display the skill of conquests and administration shone by his forerunners. This had demanded Iltumish to take charge of the situation as desired by the nobles too. A battle followed in which Aram Shah was defeated and killed. In 1211 AD Iltumish came to the throne. He was also known as Shams-ud-din. He spent his days in retriving the lost territories of Qutab-ud-din, and also added Malwa and Sind. During the reign of Iltumish he fought against the rival slave chiefs Yildiz and Qabacha. His attempts to appease Yildiz diplomatically to accept his authority gave time to prepare himself. At the battlefield of Tarain both of them met and Yildiz was defeated.

Another important problem faced by Iltumish was the Mongols led by Chingiz Khan. In his diplomatic decision he avoided a conflict with the might Mongol by preventing Jalad-ud-din the ruler of Khawarism from coming to India. Iltumish defeated his rival slave chieftain Qabacha and captured both Multan and Sindh. After this he made Ghias ud-din ceed to the supremacy of Iltumish. Later, he defeated Ghias-ud-din  who revolted ,and conquered his territories of Bengal and Bihar. Another major threat to the power of Iltumish was the independent Rajput rulers who inspite of their rivalry could pose a serious danger to the Sultanate. On 1226 AD he attacked Ranthambor and Mansor. He also occupied Ajmer, Jalor, Nagor. In 1229 Gwalior was was occupied and the fort of Kalinjar was plundered. Kannauj, Banaras and Badaun were under his dominion. In the year 1229 AD the Caliph of Bagdad recognised him as Sultan. This bestowed upon him the power to nominate his successors.

Iltumish was also a patron of art and learning. His completion of the Qutab Minar proves him to be a man of good architectural skills and tastes besides striving adequately for promoting his religion. Iltumish was succeeded by his son Rukn-ud-din Feroze who came to the throne as desired by the nobles even though Iltumish had nominated his daughter Razia to the throne. Rukn-ud-din did not prove to be a competent ruler and he left his duty of administration to his mother Shah Turkan. The unpopular rule that followed led to revolts by several governors of various provinces. Finally Rukn-ud-din and his mother Shah Turkan were murdered and the throne was succeeded by Razia Begum who ruled from 1236 AD to1240 AD. She had accomplished the major task of subduing the revolting governors and the bringing the territories under her control. She married Altunia the governor of Bhatinda. In 1240 AD the Turkish nobles deposed her and declared. Bahram Shah as their ruler, and both Razia and Altunia was killed. Bahram Shah was a mere puppet in the hands of the nobles. He was succeeded by Masud Shah ,a nephew of Razia Begum. Owing to his inability the nobles displaced him with Nasir-uddin Mahmud the youngest son of Iltumish. He was in power for twenty five years. The affairs of the state was left to his father-in-law and minister Ulugh Khan Balban. After the death of Nasir-ud-din Mahmud in 1226 AD the power was taken over by Balban. 

As a minister during the time of Nasir-ud-din Mahmud Balban had accomplished himself as an able administrator. His ideas of diplomacy and suppression of revolts with an iron hand helped him in establishing a strong rule in the history of the slave dynasty. As a minister he put down the revolting rajputs, the khokars, and the rulers of the Doab region. Ramthambhor, Gwalior, Chanderi and Malwa came under his rule. He was able to quell the power of Mewatis in 1259 AD.He firmly resolved the rivalry among the 'Fourty slaves' whose decision was the final word of the dynasty. They plotted against Balban with the help of the Sultan. But this resulted in Chaos which forced the Sultan to call back Balban. To ensure the kingdom's safety against the invading Mongols he built forts on the borders and stationed a strong army. In 1258 AD and 1259 AD Balban led campaigns against the Rajputs of the Doab and Meos of Delhi. During his early days of rule of Balban,   he pursued the suppression of the Meos. He brought order in Rohilkhand. He suppressed the revolt of Tughril Khan, the governor of Bengal. Balban died in 1287 AD. His achievements besides the consolidation of the slave kingdom include his contribution to increase the power and importance of the ruler. He had brought various code of conduct in his court that involved even the manner of dressing and addressing. He reorganised his army with equipments and stationed them in forts at vulnerable places of foreign intrusion. He paid them well in cash besides appointing governors to supervise the activities of the army. 

His administration was strongly based on his military power. Enforcement of decision and disposition of justice with a competent spy system kept him informed of the activities of every one in his kingdom. He maintained a strict attitude towards the Hindus and kept them under strong suppression with the help of his military power. He was undoubtedly the greatest of the military rulers of the Slave dynasty. He was to be succeeded by Kai Khasrau, but a diplomatic gamble brought Qaigabad the son of Bulhara Khan the governor of Bengal to the throne. He was a grandson of Balban. Aged eighteen. Qaigabad turned a blind eye to the affairs of the state. He was disposed off by the nobles bringing his three year old son to the throne. 

Another series of uprisings and revolts started amongst the nobles, many of them declaring independence thus unleasing a state of confusion. This was the period when Jalaluddin Khilji of the Khilji tribe who was placed on the throne by the nobles brought a new rule to follow under the name of the Khilji dynasty. The rule of this dynasty started in 1290 AD and continued till 1340 AD.

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