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Alauddin Khilji

After coming to the throne of the Khilji dynasty Jalal-ud-din expanded the boundaries of his empire. Besides this his achievements include suppression of the revolt of Malik Chhaju with the governor of Qudh. He suppressed the 'Thuggees' a band of robbers and send them off peacefully to Bengal. It was during the conquest of Bhilsa that Ala-ud-din the nephew of Jalal-ud-din started realising the dream of being Sultan. In 1292 AD Alauddin led an expedition to Devagiri hearing of its wealth. Devagiri was forced to pay a huge war indemnity. This helped Alauddin in buying the nobles and pleasing the soldiers who were disatisfied by the rule of Jala-ud-din. Alauddin then hatched a conspiracy and got  Sultan Jala-lud din killed and proclaimed himself as the Sultan. In the year 1296 AD Alauddin became the Sultan, after Malika Jan the widow of Jalal-ud-din and her younger son Qadin Khan left Delhi. In 1297 AD Alauddin Khilji set off for conquering Gujarat. The Raja of Gujarat took shelter in Devagiri where Nusrat Khan an Ulugh Khan pursued them and looted. Here Nusrat Khan purchased a Hindu slave called Malik Kafur who in due course helped Alauddin Khilji in his future conquests. In 1301 Ramthambhor was captured and the Rajput Hamir Deva was murdered. In 1303 he conquered Chittor killing Rana Rattan Singh. His queen Rani Padmini with the other women committed Jauhar.

In 1305 Alauddin Khilji captured Malwa and annexed Ujjain, Mandu, Dhar and Chanderi. Allauddin Khilji's expedition to Bengal was not successful and it remained independent. 

In 1308, Allauddin led an expedition to capture a fort in Sivana, Rajasthan. In 1311AD Allauddin set off on the Jalor expedition. Thus he almost completed his conquests of North. Allauddin now set out to conquer the south  lured by the wealth of Devagiri.Being the first to have thought of venturing to the south this region could be a source of revenue for him. In this adventure of his, Malik Kafur his slave who in course of time turned to be an able commander contributed greatly.Allauddin had already invaded Devagiri in the year 1294 AD and had reconciled for the condition that a tribute would be paid. Malik Kafur led the operation . A huge war indemnity was paid and a tribute offered. In 1310 AD Malik Kafur was sent to invade the Hoyasala kingdom of Dwarasamudra. The ruler conceded  to his demands and further assisted Malik Kafur in his quest against the Pandya kingdom.In 1311AD Malik Kafur went on an expedition to the Pandya kingdom which had its capital at Madurai. Malik Kafur came out successful. In 1313 AD Allauddin set out on Devagiri and annexed it to Delhi. During the rule of Allauddin Khilji, the Mongols invaded the country several times. The first invasion came during the period of 1297 AD. The forces of Sultan successfully repulsed this invasion .

In 1298 AD Saldi's invasion was neutralized by Zafar Khan thus increasing his prestige. In 1299 AD Qutlugh Khwaja invaded India for the third time. A fierce battle was the result involving Zafar Khan, Nusrat Khan and Alagh Khan. The Mongols were routed but it cost the life of Zafar Khan. In the year 1303 AD under the leader ship of Targhi another mongol invasion was carried out. From this invasion Allauddin Khilji learnt the lessons of keeping himself prepared, not only with a strong army but by fortifying and organizing his armed forces.  In 1305 AD the Mongols led by Ali Beg and Tartaq invaded India but were brutally defeated. The last of the mongol invasion was the under the leadership of Kubak and Iqbamand. Even this invasion was successfully met by Allauddin Khilji.

In his later days Allauddin had to face many troubles. Malik Kafur influenced all his actions. He met with his death in the year 1316 AD. An infant son of the Sultan was placed on the throne and he acted as the regent. Malik Kafur imprisoned, blinded and killed other members of the royal family. But Malik Kafur was murdered, and Mubarak Khan the third son of Alauddin Khilji became the regent. He then imprisoned Sahib uddin and ascended the throne as Qutb-ud-din Mubarak in the year 1316 AD. The rule of Qutb-ud-din Mubarak was an utter failure owing to his liberal administration and luxurious life style. Above all he was under the influence of youth called Hassan who later was called Khusru Khan. The misdoings of Qutb-ud-din Mubarak led to his death at the hands of Khusru Khan. The death of Mubarak sealed the fate of the Khilji dynasty. Khusru who came to the throne after Qutbuddin Mubarak was not favoured by the Turkish nobles. He was killed by a  Qaraunak Turk noble, Ghazi Malik Tughluq. This paved the way for the foundation of a new dynasty called the Tughluq dynasty.

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