Andhra Pradesh the third largest state in India, and the biggest and most populous state in the south of India
bifurcated into two states, 'Telangana' and 'Andhra Pradesh'. The existing Andhra Pradesh state, with a total population of 84.6 million (2011 census) and 23 districts,
was split into two, with one of its main regions Telangana forming a separate state and the remaining regions comprising of Rayalaseema and coastal Andhra together called Seemandhra, forming residuary Andhra Pradesh
state. Telangana, with 10 districts- Khammam, Nalgonda, Warangal, Karimnagar, Medak, Nizamabad, Aadilabad, Mahbubnagar and Hyderabad districts,
formed a new state on June 2nd 2014. The residuary state was left with 13 districts - nine prosperous districts of coastal Andhra, and four backward districts of the Rayalaseema region. Hyderabad, one of the 10 districts of Telangana, will be the common capital of the two states for 10 years.
Telangana region has an area of 114,840 square kilometres (44,340 sq mi), and a population of 35,286,757 (2011 census- 35.28 million.), which is 41.6% of the total population of Andhra
Pradesh. With the exception of Hyderabad, which witnessed rapid development during the last two decades due to the IT boom, Telangana is a backward region. The upland arid region also lags in agriculture due to its geographical disadvantage.
Telangana region relate to the Telugu speaking areas located in the north of united Andhra Pradesh, which was part of the former princely state of Nizam's Hyderabad. Telangana existed as Hyderabad state from 1950 to 1956. It was merged with Andhra State in 1956, which was in turn carved out of Madras state in 1953. Andhra was the first state constituted on a linguistic basis after independence with Kurnool as its capital. The merger of Telangana with Andhra state resulted in the formation of Andhra Pradesh, a bigger and united state for Telugu speaking people with Hyderabad
as its capital.
Leaders in Telangana had reservations about the merger even then. Despite the common language, people of Telangana and Andhra state came from different historical, geographical and socio-economic backgrounds and there were differences in accent, culture, customs, food habits, festivals and even the deities worshipped. The people of Telangana always had a grievance that the other regions were not only plundering their resources but also insulting their dialect, culture and customs.
These differences and grievances lead to the movement for a separate state by Telangana people which peaked in 1969 with the emergence of 'Jai Telangana' movement. Violence erupted and over 300 people were killed in police firing that year. Telangana Praja Samiti (TPS) formed a major political party but later its leaders gave up the demand for a separate state for some positions
Meanwhile in 1972, the call for a separate state began in coastal Andhra as well, with the emergence of 'Jai Andhra' movement. As the movements gained momentum, in 1975 the Congress led government implemented a six point formula providing safeguards to Telangana to keep Andhra Pradesh united. But the people of Telangana felt that they were neglected and the agreements regarding education and employment of their area were not met. In 2001, Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) was formed by K. Chandrashekhar Rao who was part
of UPA 1 then, at the centre. It was his efforts that paved the way for the inclusion of Telangana issue by the central UPA government in common minimum programme in 2004, and later in December 2009 announce its decision to initiate the process for formation of Telangana
But following protests in Rayalaseema and Andhra regions (Seemandhra) and en mass resignations of MPs and state legislators, centre put the process on hold citing need for consensus. This led to massive protest from the Telangana region and 900 people are said to have lost their lives as per
the report of Telangana groups.
Finally giving in to the long standing demand, the Union cabinet approved the division of the state of Andhra Pradesh on 3rd October 2013. Subsequently the bill for the creation of Telengana was passed both in the Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha on February 18, 2014 amid clashes between MPs from Seemandhra and
Telangana. Finaly the new state Telangana was formed on June 2nd 2014.