Sunday, January 29, 2023

Fairs and Festivals


Thiruvatira is the women's festival of Kerala. It is celebrated in the Malayalam month of Dhanu. The popular conception of this festival is that it is the commemoration of the death of Kamadevan; the cupid of our national mythology. 

Kamadevan was destroyed in the burning fire of the third eye of Lord Siva; one of the chief members of our Divine Trinity. Hence he is now supposed as having only an ideal or spiritual existence. He exerts a powerful influence upon the passions of human nature. In earlier days, the festival used to be celebrated as follows: About a week before the festival practically opens, at about 4 in the morning every young female member of the Nair families, gets out of her bed and takes her bath in the pond. A fairly large number of these young ladies collect themselves in the pond for the purpose. Then they plunge into the water and begin to take part in the singing. One of them then leads off by means of a peculiar rhythmic song chiefly pertaining to cupid. The singing is simultaneously accompanied by a curious sound produced with the hand on the water. The palm of the left hand is closed and kept immediately underneath the surface of the water. Then the palm of the other is forcibly brought in the slanting direction producing a deep loud  noise. This process is continuously prolonged together with the singing. One stanza is over, along with the sound and then the leader stops a while, for the others to follow her in her wake. This continues until the conclusion of the song. Then all  of them make a long pause and then begin another. The process goes on until the peep of the dawn, when they rub themselves dry and come home to dress themselves in the neatest and grandest possible attire. They darken the fringes of their eyelids with a sticky preparation of soot mixed up with a little oil or ghee and sometimes with a  superficial coating of antimony powder. They also wear white, black or red marks, lower down the middle of their foreheads close to the part where the two eyebrows near one another. They chew betel and thus redden their mouth and lips. 

Then they proceed to the enjoyment of another prominent item known as Oonjal (swing). A long bamboo piece is taken and cut  from the root end of it leaving the other end whole untouched. Then the two holes are bored. One on the cut end of each one of the two parts into which the bamboo is split. A small piece of the same, material about a yard in length is divided along the gain in two equal parts. One of these is taken and its both ends are cut into points which are thrust into the holes of the long bamboo piece. This is  securely nailed and strongly attached to the long bamboo. It is then hung by a very tight strong rope to a horizontal branch of the neighbouring tree. Then the player seats herself on the small piece attached between the split positions which are firmly held by her two hands. The whole thing is propelled upwards by someone from behind. The ladies drive immense pleasure from their process of swinging backwards and forwards.

On the festival day, they take a morning bath and in the noon a grand lunch is served. The essential ingredients of it is being ordinary ripe plantain fruits and a delicious preparation of arrow-root powder purified and mixed with jaggery or sugar and also coconut. The women spend the whole  night singing and dancing.

  Thiruvathirakali also known as Kaikottikkali is a dance in which a group of women dance in a circle around a lighted brass lamp. They are dancing to the rhythms of the songs they sing. They wear the traditional dress, consisting of two pieces, dhoti and an upper garment across the breast and look elegant and sprightly for the game. The leader of the group sings the first line which is repeated by the group to the simple rhythm of clapping hands. There are many songs which are exclusively sung as Tiruvathira songs, popular Kathakali songs are also included. The kinetic phrases are so simple that any new comer easily gets initiated to the game. This dance form had been keeping its basic posture for centuries. The bent of the body, hand movements and dance gestures are common to the region.

 'Ettangadi chuduka' is an important ritualistic act of women. On this day, eight different tubers are roasted in the fire. Through this ritual, it is believed that Kamadeva's body represented by the tubers is regained. This delicious preparation known as Thiruvathirappuzhukku, a special dish prepared by these tubers forms the main item for lunch. In some places, women spend the whole day taking no food except this preparation. The night long music and dance is interspersed with a ceremony called Patirappoo choodal. It is a ritualistic wearing of flowers at midnight. An image of Shiva is placed in the centre of the courtyard in front of lighted brass lamp where flowers, plantains, and jaggery are offered to the deity. The women perform the dance around the image and each participant adorns a few flowers from the offering and have the arrowroot preparation of puzhukku and tender coconut milk, which are the items of the food.

The morning bath during the season while the climate is extremely cold make the women's body cool and composed. Apart from the religious significance of the day, the women of Kerala enjoy good exercise and entertainment on this day. After the midnight, ritual of adorning with flowers, the dance and music continue till sunrise. The participants take the morning ablution and with it they conclude the festival.