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Proteinuria and Unani treatment
|By : Dr.Izharul Hasan , New Delhi, India 25.9.2010 1 Comments Phone:8287833547, 9738626275 Mail Now|
|Ayurvedic and Unani Tibbia College, Karolbagh|
Proteinuria—also called albuminuria or urine albumin—is a condition in which urine contains an abnormal amount of protein. Albumin is the main protein in the blood. Proteins are the building blocks for all body parts, including muscles, bones, hair, and nails. Proteins in the blood also perform a number of important functions. They protect the body from infection, help blood clot, and keep the right amount of fluid circulating throughout the body.
As blood passes through healthy kidneys, they filter out the waste products and leave in the things the body needs, like albumin and other proteins. Most proteins are too big to pass through the kidneys’ filters into the urine. However, proteins from the blood can leak into the urine when the filters of the kidney, called glomeruli, are damaged.
Proteinuria is a sign of chronic kidney disease (CKD),
which can result from diabetes, high blood pressure, and diseases that cause
inflammation in the kidneys. For this reason, testing for albumin in the urine
is part of a routine medical assessment for everyone. Kidney disease is
sometimes called renal disease. If CKD progresses, it can lead to end-stage
renal disease (ESRD), when the kidneys fail completely. A person with
ESRD must receive a kidney transplant or regular blood-cleansing treatments calledeople with diabetes, hypertension, or certain family backgrounds are at risk for proteinuria. In the United States, diabetes is the leading cause of ESRD.1 In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, albumin in the urine is one of the first signs of deteriorating kidney function. As kidney function declines, the amount of albumin in the urine increases.
Another risk factor for developing proteinuria is hypertension, or high blood pressure. Proteinuria in a person with high blood pressure is an indicator of declining kidney function. If the hypertension is not controlled, the person can progress to full kidney failure.
African Americans are more likely than Caucasians to have high blood pressure and to develop kidney problems from it, even when their blood pressure is only mildly elevated. In fact, African Americans are six times more likely than Caucasians to develop hypertension-related kidney failure.
Other groups at risk for proteinuria are American Indians, Hispanics/Latinos, Pacific Islander Americans, older adults, and overweight people. These at-risk groups and people who have a family history of kidney disease should have their urine tested regularly.
Proteinuria has no signs or symptoms in the early stages. Large amounts of protein in the urine may cause it to look foamy in the toilet. Also, because protein has left the body, the blood can no longer soak up enough fluid, so swelling in the hands, feet, abdomen, or face may occur. This swelling is called edema. These are signs of large protein loss and indicate that kidney disease has progressed. Laboratory testing is the only way to find out whether protein is in a person’s urine before extensive kidney damage occurs. Until recently, an accurate protein measurement required a 24-hour urine collection. In a 24-hour collection, the patient urinates into a container, which is kept refrigerated between trips to the bathroom. The patient is instructed to begin collecting urine after the first trip to the bathroom in the morning. Every drop of urine for the rest of the day is to be collected in the container. The next morning, the patient adds the first urination after waking and the collection is complete.
Points to Remember