|Kingdoms of South|
In 1323 AD Prataparudra the Kakatiya ruler of Warangal was defeated and over throne by Ulugh khan, the general of Sultan Ghajas -ud-din. The treasury superintendent of Prataparudra Harihara and Bukka fled to Kampil, and took refuge there. Kampiladeva the ruler of Kampil was overthrown and Harihara and Bukka were taken as prisoners to Delhi. The confusion that prevailed during the rule of Mahamud bin Tughlaq paved the way for Harihara and Bukka who with their local influence could prove advantageous for the Sultan. After the death of the sultan the Hindu rulers established themselves over Warangal . Amid the confusion that prevailed in the Sultanate, Harihara and Bukka founded the city of Vijayanagar on the banks of the Tungabhadra and declared themselves independent. They conquered parts of the Konkan and Malabar. They joined the confederacy of Krishna Nayak who sought to throw the Muslims out of South India. In 1346 AD they took possession of the Hoyasala territories. Harihara died in 1353 AD. His brother Bukka who governed over the western Telegu districts ruled till 1377AD. He was succeeded by Harihara II. He was capable of extending his territories by adding Mysore, Trichinpoly and Kanchi. He was succeeded by his son Bukka II who ruled for a couple of years. Bukka II was overthrown by Devaraya I. Devaraya I died in 1422 and was succeeded by his son Ramachandra who ruled as Devaraya II. He suffered a defeat at the hands of the Bahmani rulers in 1443AD. Owing to weak successors the Sangama Dynasty founded by Harihara and Bukkar declined in 1490AD.
In place of this came the Saluva dynasty which ruled from 1490-1505AD. This dynasty was founded by Narasimha who snatched the power from Virupaksha II the last Sangama ruler. Weak successors resulted in the decline of this dynasty and paved the way for the Tuluva dynasty.
The Tuluva dynasty was founded by Naresh Tuluva, the commander of Narsimha Rao's army. The most famous ruler of this dynasty was Krishna Deva Raya who ruled from 1505 to 1530 AD. He brought name to the dynasty by suppressing the revolts against him. He conquered Orissa, Udayagiri, Kondavidu and Kondagiri. In 1520 he defeated Adil Shah of Bijapur. He maintained a cordial relation with the foreign powers and carried on trade with the Portuguese. He was tolerant towards all religion and patronised learning and literature. He died in 1530AD and was succeeded byt Achyutha Deva whose in competency in administration led to the disintegration of the dynasty. Under the leadership of Rama Raya the empire was exposed to Muslim attacks. After the death of Rama Raya his brother Triumala established the Arvadiu dynasty. Owing to weak successors and the onslaught of Muslims the empire declined in 1614AD.
Before the coming of the Mughals into India there evolved several religious movements which led to the evolution of Sufism. The Bhakti movement was a renaissance in the Hindu religion which stressed the path of Bhakti for attaining salvation. New literary language evolved with various literary works too. After the downfall of the Delhi Sultanate there existed no central power which could provide a stable administration. The Hindus faced severe suppression under the Sultanate. The Delhi Sultanate was tottering. Mewar was a territory that prospered under the rule of Rana Sanga a Rajput. The Vijayanagar kingdom was in the height of glory in southern India while the Bahmani kingdom was breaking up. Khandesh, Kashmir, Orissa, Gujarat, Malwa, Bengal and Sind were independent.