Aryans | Later Aryan (Vedic Period) | Literature In Vedic Period

Family being the basis of the Aryan social life  needed to be a healthy bond. Monogamy was the usuOrnaments worn by the Aryan womenal rule but polygamy was also practiced. Women played an important role in the family. They also excelled in education. Apata Visvara and Ghosa were a few who even composed mantras. Both vegetarian and non-vegetarian food were common. Wheat and barley was the common food grains. Drinks included the Soma and Sura which were intoxicating and was drunk during festivals. 

The dress consisted of two or three garments- an under garment, garment  and a cloak. These were made of wool or skin and colored yellow and red. Gold ornaments such as necklaces, earrings, anklets, and bracelets were common and was worn by both men and women.  Women enjoyed equal status and received education with the men. They also freely participated in public life.


BrahmaThe Aryans worshipped many gods and goddess. Most of the objects they worshipped were the personification  of the  forces of nature. The religious beliefs of the Aryans and its essential elements were contained in the Rig Veda. It was based on the beliefs that

  1. The numerous gods and goddess were personifications of whatever that was noble splendid and striking in nature .Hanuman

  2. The common people sought refugee under these powers who did good answer as evil. To get the good offerings as food and drinks has to  be made.

  3. Fire was the means of messengers who carried the offerings to the gods .  This was done amidst the chanting of hymns of praise .

There were numerous deities, classified under terrestrial, atmospheric, and celestial group. Agni, Indra and varuna  were the chief deities. They also included Agni, vayu, surya, prithivi,etc. Gods and  goddess were worshipped with simple ceremonials known as Yajna or sacrifices.

Extent of Aryans in India

The Aryans were said to have been spread into four divisions of the country as portrayed by Manu  

  • Brahmavarta 

  • Braharishi Desha

  • Madhya Desha 

  • Aryavarta

(a) The Brahmavarta or the land of Gods was the region lying between the rivers Saraswati and Drishadwati It also included parts of Kurukshetra as mentioned in the Mahabharatha.

(b) The Braharishi Desha  or the country of the holy sages. Comprised the territories of the Kurus, Matsya, Panchalas  and Swsenas. Today they are known as Thaneshwar, Eastern Rajputana, the Doab and Mathura district.

(c)  The Madhya Desa or the middle country occupied the region lying between the Himalayas and Vindhyas.

(d) The Aryavarta occupied the region between the Himalayas and the Vindhyas from the east to west. 

Though a physical terrain segregated North and South India and resulted in the development of a Dravidian culture, yet the Aryans influenced the religious thoughts of the Dravidians