Monday, July 15, 2024
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English - Hindi Index of common Ingredients

Spices & Nuts | Fruits | Vegetables | Lentils & Cereals | Weights & Measures | Glossary | Indian Ingredients Glossary

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Vegetables
English   Hindi Picture
Beetroot -  Beetroot

Beetroot

Brinjal (Egg plant, aubergine) - Baingan

Brinjal

Cabbage - Band Gobhi

Cabbage

Capsicum - Shimla Mirch

Capsicum

Carrot - Gajar

Carrot

Cauliflower - Phool Gobhi

Cauliflower

Cucumber - Kheera

Cucumber

Fenugreek leaves - Methi ke Patte

Fenugreek leaves

French beans - Phras Bean

French beans

Green Peas - Matar

Green Peas

English   Hindi Picture
Mushrooms - Gucchi

Mushrooms

Onions - Pyaz

Onion

Potatoes - Aloo

Potatoes

Pumpkin - Kaddu

Pumpkin

Spinach - Palak

Spinach

Spring Onions - Hara Pyaz

Spring Onions

Tomato - Tamatar

Tomato

Turnip - Shalgam

Turnip

White Gourd - Lanki White Gourd
       
 

Acorn Squash - An oval winter squash with a ribbed, dark green skin and slightly sweet orange flesh. May be eaten baked or directly from the shell. The word squash comes from the Massachusetts Indian word "asquash," meaning "eaten green."

 

Adzuki Bean - A small, dried, russet-colored bean with a sweet flavor. Available whole or powdered at Asian markets. Popular in Japanese confections such as "Yokan," which is made from adzuki-bean paste and agar.

 

Alfalfa - One of the world's most important forage plants. It is widely cultivated and is increasing in popularity for human consumption due to its promotion as a dietary supplement. The seeds are often sprouted much like mung beans.

 

Amaranth - This weed is a nourishing, high-protein food. Amaranth greens have a slightly sweet flavor. The seeds are used as cereal or can be ground into flour for bread. Found in health food stores.

 

Arrowhead - A Chinese water plant with arrowhead-shaped leaves. The starchy roots can be thin sliced, lightly fried, and used in various Chinese dishes. The roots can also be powdered like arrowroot.

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Artichoke - This name is shared by three unrelated plants: the globe, Jerusalem, and Chinese artichokes. The globe artichoke is considered the true artichoke and is cultivated in California. Buy deep green artichokes with a tight leaf formation.

 

Artichoke Heart - The tender center of the globe artichoke.

 

Arugula - This slightly bitter, aromatic salad green (also called "rocket," "Rugula," and "Rucolo") has a peppery mustard flavor. Look for bright green, fresh-looking leaves. Makes a lively addition to salads, soups, and sautéed vegetables.

 

Asparagus - This vegetable is a member of the lily family. Normally green with purple-tinged tips. Europeans prefer white asparagus which is grown underground to prevent greening. Choose bright green or pale ivory stalks with tight tips.

 

Asparagus Bean - A pencil-thin legume from the black-eye pea family that looks like a very long green bean. These beans can grow a yard long, but are usually picked at 18" or less. These beans are slightly less sweet and crispy as the green bean.

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Balsam Pear - Not a pear at all, but the fruit of a tropical climbing herb in Africa and Asia. It is similar to a cucumber and is used as a vegetable in meat dishes, fish dishes, and in soups. Also called "bitter melon" or "bitter gourd."

 

Bamboo Shoot - The tender-crisp, ivory colored shoot of a particular edible species of bamboo. The shoots are cut as soon as they appear above ground while they are still young and tender.

 

Basella - An edible leaf from a tropical plant that is cultivated in certain parts of France. Basella may be prepared in any manner appropriate for spinach. Also called "vine spinach."

 

Bean Sprouts - The crisp, tender sprouts of various germinated beans. Mung bean sprouts, used often in Chinese cooking, are the most popular. However, other seeds and beans, such as alfalfa seeds, soybeans, and wheat beans are also sprouted.

 

Bean Threads - A form of translucent Chinese noodle. These are not true noodles, but are made from the starch of mung beans. Also called "cellophane noodles."

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Beans - These highly nutritious seeded pods of various legumes are among the oldest foods known to humanity, dating back to prehistoric times.

 

Beet - A firm, round-rooted vegetable with nutritious leafy greens. Commonly known as the garden beet. In addition to the garden beet, are the spinach or leaf beet ("Swiss chard"), the sugar beet, and the mangold, which is used mostly for fodder.

 

Bell Pepper - The best-known members of the sweet peppers. This mild, sweet bell-shaped pepper is crisp and features a very juicy flesh. Bell peppers are available in green, yellow, red, orange, purple and brown colors.

 

Bibb Lettuce - A type of butterhead lettuce with soft, loose, tender whitish-green leaves and a mild flavor. Other butterhead lettuce varieties include "Boston" and "buttercrunch."

 

Bitter Melon - The fruit of a tropical climbing herb in Africa and Asia. It is similar to a cucumber and is used as a vegetable in meat dishes, fish dishes, and in soups. Also called "Balsam pear" or "bitter gourd."

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Black Beans - Also known as "turtle beans" or "black turtle beans," these beans have black skin, cream-colored flesh, and a sweet flavor that forms the base for black bean soup.

 

Black Radish - A large plant thought to be of Oriental origin. These plants are grown chiefly for their pungent peppery root, which can get up to 2 pounds or more. This radish is popular in Germany and in the East.

 

Black Salsify - Also called "Scorzonera," this is a black-skinned variety of salsify. Most varieties of this vegetable are grayish or pale golden in color.

 

Black Turtle Beans - Also known as "black beans," these beans have black skin, cream-colored flesh, and a sweet flavor that forms the base for black bean soup.

 

Black-Eyed Peas - A small beige bean of the legume family with a round black "eye" located at its inner curve. This bean is popular, particularly in the south. Also called the "cowpea." Varieties with yellow "eyes" are called "yellow-eyed peas."

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Bok Choy - Also called Chinese cabbage, this variety of cabbage has crinkly, thick veined leaves which are thin, crisp, and delicately mild. Choose firm, tightly packed heads with crisp, green-tipped leaves.

 

Borecole - A non-heading member of the cabbage family. Also called "kale." Cultivated for over 2,000 years, this vegetable can be prepared and eaten in much the same way as spinach.

 

Borscht - Also known as "borsch." This is a beet soup. It is prepared with beets and an assortment of vegetables with meat and/or meat stock. It is served hot or cold and is often garnished with a dollop of sour cream.

 

Bottle Gourd - A common variety of hard-shelled gourd, also called "white-flowered gourd" and "Calabash gourd." This gourd is used in the West Indies to produce a very popular syrup. Its shell is often used to create bowls and other utensils.

 

Broad Bean - Also known as the "fava bean," "faba bean," and "horse bean." This bean looks like a very large lima bean. The pod is inedible unless the plant is very young. Avoid pods bulging with beans as this is an indication of age.

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Broccoli - This vegetable is related to the cabbage, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower. It is a deep green vegetable that comes in tight clusters of tiny buds that sit on stout edible stems.

 

Brussels Sprouts - This vegetable is a member of the cabbage family and, in fact, looks like miniature heads of cabbage. The smaller spouts are more tender. Storing Brussels sprouts too long will produce a strong flavor.

 

Burdock - This slender root vegetable has brown skin and grayish white flesh. Used in soups as well as with vegetables and meats. Known by the Japanese as "Gobo."

 

Butterbean - A pale green, plump-bodied bean with a slight kidney-shaped curve. Baby limas are smaller and milder than the Fordhook variety (which are not mature baby limas). More commonly known as the "lima bean."

 

Butternut Squash - Large winter squash that looks like a pear-shaped baseball bat. This vegetable weights about 2 to 3 pounds and has a sweet orange flesh. Used in breads, stews, soups, muffins, and puddings.

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Cabbage - Cabbage comes in many forms: flat, conical, or round shapes and leaves that are compact, loose, curly, or flat. The most popular U.S. cabbage varieties are round, have waxy leaves, are heavy for their size, and vary from white to red.

 

Cabbage Turnip - This vegetable is a member of the cabbage family. Popular in Europe, the cabbage turnip's bulb tastes like a sweet turnip. Eaten steamed, in soups, and in stews. Also called the "kohlrabi."

 

Calabash - A common variety of hard-shelled gourd, also called "bottle gourd" and "white-flowered gourd." This gourd is used in the West Indies to produce a very popular syrup. Its shell is often used to create bowls and other utensils.

 

Cannellini - The Italian name for an oval, white, dried bean that is served in soups, or with a dressing made from olive oil and vinegar dressing. Used in salads and antipastos. Also called "white kidney bean."

 

Cantaloupe - True cantaloupes are European and are not exported to the U.S. North American "cantaloupes" are actually muskmelons. The light orange flesh is mild, sweet, and very juicy.

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Cardoon - This vegetable resembles a large bunch of wide flat celery. Popular in France, this vegetable is described as tasting like a cross between an artichoke, celery, and salsify. Also called "cardoni."

 

Carrot - This member of the parsley family has long green foliage and an edible orange root. This very popular vegetable has been cultivated for over 2,000 years.

 

Casaba Melon - This member of the muskmelon family has cream-colored flesh, is extremely juicy, and has a mild cucumber-like flavor.

 

Cassava - The cassava is a root with a crisp white flesh. There are two main categories of cassava: sweet and bitter. Bitter cassavas are toxic until cooked. Cassava is used to make "cassreep" and "tapioca."

 

Cauliflower - This member of the cabbage family is composed of bunches of tiny creamy white florets on stalks of the same color. The entire white portion--called the curd--is edible.

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Ceci - The round irregularly shaped buff-colored legumes with a firm texture and a mild nut-like flavor. Also called "chick-peas" and "garbanzo beans." Used in salads, soups, and stews.

 

Celeriac - This vegetable is the root of a special celery that is cultivated specifically for its root. It tastes like a cross between parsley and a strong celery. Used in soups, stews, and purees. Also known as "celery root" and "celery knob."

 

Celery - One of the most popular vegetables in the Western world. This plant grows in bunches of leaved ribs surrounding a tender heart. Eaten raw and used in soups, stews, and casseroles.

 

Cellophane Noodle - A form of translucent Chinese noodle. These are not true noodles, but are made from the starch of mung beans. Also called "bean threads."

 

Celtuse - A variety of lettuce that exhibits characteristics of both celery and lettuce. Celtuse can be eaten raw or cooked.

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Chard - A type of beet that doesn't develop the swollen, fleshy roots of ordinary beets. This vegetable is grown for its large leaves which are used much like other green vegetables. Also called "Swiss chard."

 

Chayote - This gourd-like fruit has a bland white flesh. Chayotes can be prepared in any way suitable for summer squash. It is a good source of potassium.

 

Chick-Pea - The round irregularly shaped buff-colored legumes with a firm texture and a mild nut-like flavor. Also called "garbanzo beans" and "ceci." Used in salads, soups, and stews.

 

Chinese Cabbage - Also called bok choy, Napa cabbage, chinese celery cabbage, wong bok, and Peking cabbage. Has crinkly, thick veined leaves which are thin, crisp, and mild. Choose firm, tightly packed heads with crisp, green-tipped leaves.

 

Chinese Fungus - A fungus that resembles a human ear. It is found almost exclusively on dead elder tree branches. Used in many Chinese dishes. Normally dried before use. Also know as "Jew's Ear."

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Chinese Radish - This radish has a sweet flavor and a crisp, juicy white flesh. Used raw, in salads, in stir-fries, and as a garnish. Also called "Oriental radish" and "Daikon," which means "big root" in Japanese.

 

Chinese Watermelon - The melon-like fruit of a tropical Asian vine belonging to the gourd family. Also called "white gourd."

 

Chinese Yam - Large bulbous root vegetable with a thin brown skin and a white crunchy flesh with a texture similar to water chestnut. It has a sweet, nutty flavor and can be eaten raw or cooked. Also called "Yam Bean Tuber."

 

Cole - A non-heading member of the cabbage family. Also called "kale." Cultivated for over 2,000 years, this vegetable can be prepared and eaten in much the same way as spinach.

 

Cole Slaw - A salad composed of shredded red or white cabbage and mayonnaise, vinaigrette or other type of dressing. Chopped onion, celery, peppers, pickles, bacon, nuts, and herbs are also sometimes added.

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Colewart - A non-heading member of the cabbage family. Also called "kale." Cultivated for over 2,000 years, this vegetable can be prepared and eaten in much the same way as spinach.

 

Collards - A variety of cabbage that doesn't form a head, but grows in a loose rosette at the Top of a tall stem. Tastes like a cross between cabbage and kale, which is a close relative. Also called "collard greens."

 

Cooking Banana - The fruit of a large tropical herb that belongs to the banana family, but are larger, starchier, and not as sweet. It has a squash-like flavor and is used much like a potato. Also called the "baking banana" and "plantain."

 

Cos Lettuce - Also called "Romaine," this variety of lettuce is long and cylindrical. Its broad, crisp leaves are used in Caesar salads.

 

Cowpea - A small beige bean of the legume family with a round black "eye" located at its inner curve. This bean is popular, particularly in the south. Also called the "black-eyed pea." Varieties with yellow "eyes" are called "yellow-eyed peas."

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rved neck and a bulbous base. The creamy-white flesh has a mild flavor.

 

Cucumber - A long, green, cylinder-shaped member of the gourd family with edible seeds surrounded by mild, crisp flesh. Used for making pickles and usually eaten raw. Cucumbers have been cultivated for thousands of years.

 

Daikon - "Daikon" means "big root" in Japanese. This radish has a sweet flavor and a crisp, juicy white flesh. Used raw, in salads, in stir-fries, and as a garnish. Also called "Oriental radish."

 

Dandelion Greens - A weed with bright green leaves with a slightly bitter tangy taste. Used to add interest to salads. The leaves can be eaten raw or cooked. The roots can eaten raw or cooked or roasted and ground to make "root coffee."

 

Dasheen - A variety of taro that is grown in the southern states. It is a high-starch tuber. Although acrid in the raw state, it has a nut-like flavor when cooked. Taro can be boiled, fried, baked, and used in soup.

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Dasheen Leaf - The large "elephant ear" leaves of the dasheen (a variety of "taro") that are edible when young.

 

Dishcloth Gourd - The fruit of any of several tropical vines of the gourd family. Also called the "loofah," "rag gourd," and "vegetable sponge." The dried insides of these gourds can be used as a sponge.

 

Falafel - A middle Eastern dish composed of small, deep-fried balls made of very spicy ground chick-peas. Normally tucked into pita bread or served alone as an appetizer.

 

Fava Bean - This bean looks like a very large lima bean. The pod is inedible unless the plant is very young. Avoid pods bulging with beans as this is an indication of age. Also known as the "broad bean."

 

Field Peas - A variety of green or yellow pea that is grown to be dried. "Split peas" are field peas that have been dried and split along the natural seam. Field peas normally do not require pre-soaking.

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Fon Goot - Large bulbous root vegetable with a thin brown skin and a white crunchy flesh with a texture similar to water chestnut. It has a sweet, nutty flavor and can be eaten raw or cooked. Also called "Jicama."

 

French Bean - Any young, green, string bean that can be eaten whole (including the pod).

 

Fuyu - Salted and fermented tofu (soybean curd cake).

 

Garbanzo Bean - The round irregularly shaped buff-colored legumes with a firm texture and a mild nut-like flavor. Also called "chick-peas" and "ceci." Used in salads, soups, and stews.

 

Gazpacho - A cold summertime soup from Spain. This uncooked soup contains a puree of tomatoes, sweet peppers, onions, celery, cucumber, bread crumbs, garlic, olive oil, and vinegar. Sometimes served with croutons and hard-boiled eggs.

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Gherkin - The young fruit of a small variety of dark green cucumbers grown especially for pickling. The French call this pickle "cornichons."

 

Goa Bean - A fast-growing, high-protein legume. Also called the "winged bean." This bean is entirely edible, including the shoots, flower, roots, leaves, pods, and seeds. Tastes somewhat like a cross between the cranberry bean and the green bean.

 

Gobo - This slender root vegetable has brown skin and grayish white flesh. Used in soups as well as with vegetables and meats. Also known as "burdock."

 

Great Northern Bean - A very large white bean with a distinctive, delicate flavor. Popular in the Midwest for baked bean dishes. Can be substituted for any variety of white beans for most recipes.

 

Green Bean - A small green bean that is eaten in its long green pod. The green bean used to have a fibrous "string" down the center of the pod; this characteristic has been bred out of the species. Also called "string bean."

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Green Pea - A small, round green vegetable from the legume family. Also known as the garden pea. Unlike snow peas, which are eaten pod and all, green peas are eaten without the pod. Used by the Greeks and Romans long before Christian times.

 

Guacamole - Mashed avocados. Sometimes contains lemon or lime to prevent discoloration and seasonings such as cilantro (coriander), chili powder, red pepper, finely chopped tomatoes, and green onions.

 

Hamburg Parsley - A parsley subspecies grown for its beige carrot-like root which tastes somewhat like a cross between a carrot and celery. Used in stews and soups. Also eaten as a vegetable. Also called "parsley root."

 

Hearts of Palm - The edible inside portion of the stem of the cabbage palm tree. They are slender, ivory-colored, and have a delicate flavor reminiscent of artichoke.

 

Hominy - Dried white or yellow corn kernels with their hulls and germ removed. Also called "samp." Ground hominy is called "grits." This popular staple in the South and Southwest came to us from the Algonquin Indians.

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Honeydew - Melons related to cantaloupes, casaba and Persian melons. Honeydew melons are used to accompany meat, seafood, and cheese. They are also used in salads, desserts, and fruit soups.

 

Horse Bean - This bean looks like a very large lima bean. The pod is inedible unless the plant is very young. Avoid pods bulging with beans as this is an indication of age. Also known as the "broad bean."

 

Hubbard Squash - A large winter squash of American origin. Often mashed and mixed with butter and seasonings. Also used in casseroles, muffins, and pies.

 

Hyacinth Bean - An Old World vine of the legume family. The beans are black or white and are contained in a papery, beaked pod.

 

Iceberg Lettuce - The most popular variety of lettuce. Although less flavorful and less nutritious as the other varieties, it costs less, is easier to shred, and keeps longer than other varieties.

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Jack Bean Seed - Also known as "horse bean seed." This bean looks like a very large lima bean. The pod is inedible unless the plant is very young. Avoid pods bulging with beans as this is an indication of age.

 

Jalapeño - A smooth dark green chili pepper named after Jalapa, the capital of Veracruz, Mexico. These peppers range in flavor from hot to very hot. The flavor is much milder if the seeds and veins are removed prior to use. Often found in salsas.

 

Japanese White Radish - This radish has a sweet flavor and a crisp, juicy white flesh. Used raw, in salads, in stir-fries, and as a garnish. Also called "Daikon."

 

Jerusalem Artichoke - This vegetable is not an artichoke and its name has nothing to do with Jerusalem. This member of the sunflower family is also known as a "sunchoke" and has a flesh that is nutty, sweet, and crunchy.

 

Jew's Ear - A fungus that resembles a human ear. It is found almost exclusively on dead elder tree branches. Used in many Chinese dishes and is also know as "Chinese fungus." Normally dried before use.

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Jicama - Large bulbous root vegetable with a thin brown skin and a white crunchy flesh with a texture similar to water chestnut. It has a sweet, nutty flavor and can be eaten raw or cooked. Also called "Mexican potato."

 

Kale - A non-heading member of the cabbage family. Cultivated for over 2,000 years, this vegetable can be prepared and eaten in much the same way as spinach.

 

Kanpyo - Strips of dried gourd, popular in Japan. The strips are soaked in water to soften before they are used in sushi, soups, and broths.

 

Katuray - The edible flower of a tree native to the South Pacific and parts of Asia. Especially popular as a food in the Philippines. Also called "Sesbania Flower."

 

Kelp - A long, dark brown to grayish-black algae which is harvested, sun-dried, then folded into sheets. A popular ingredient in Japanese cookery. Sometimes pickled and used as a condiment.

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Kidney Bean - A popular, firm bean with a dark red skin and a full-bodied flavor. Considered the world's second most important bean (behind the soybean). Popular in "chili con carne" (chili with meat), soups, and salads.

 

Kohlrabi - Also called the "cabbage turnip," this vegetable is a member of the cabbage family. Popular in Europe, the kohlrabi bulb tastes like a sweet turnip. Eaten steamed, in soups, and in stews.

 

Kome-Kogi - Miso made from rice.

 

Koyodofu - Dried tofu (soybean curd cake).

 

Laver - A very nutritious seaweed that is normally sold in tissue-thin sheets. It has a tangy, sweet flavor and a dark purple color. Used in soups or deep-fried as an appetizer.

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Leek - A relative to the onion and the garlic. It has a mild onion flavor and is used as a vegetable or as seasoning for salads, soups, and other dishes.

 

Lentil - A nutritious member of the legume family, the lentil is most often eaten in the U.S. in soups. In Europe, they are frequently used in stews and in salads.

 

Lettuce - There are several hundred varieties of lettuce. The four most general classifications include "butterhead," "crisphead," "leaf," and "Romaine." The darker green outer leaves contain the most vitamins.

 

Lima Bean - A pale green, plump-bodied bean with a slight kidney-shaped curve. Baby limas are smaller and milder than the Fordhook variety (which are not mature baby limas). The popular combination of lima beans and corn is called "succotash."

 

Longbean - A pencil-thin legume from the black-eye pea family that looks like a very long green bean. These beans can grow a yard long, but are usually picked at 18" or less. These beans are slightly less sweet and crispy as the green bean.

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Loofah - The fruit of any of several tropical vines of the gourd family. The dried insides of these gourds can be used as a sponge. Also called "vegetable sponge" and "sponge gourd."

 

Looseleaf Lettuce - Looseleaf lettuce varieties include "greenleaf," "oakleaf," and "redleaf." These varieties of lettuce offer large loose heads of crisp, delicately flavored leaves. More perishable than iceberg or romaine.

 

Lotus - The lotus is a water lily whose leaves, root, and seeds are used in oriental cooking. The root can be used as a vegetable. The seeds are used in desserts

 

Lupine - This flat, yellow bean native to the Mediterranean basin, has been cultivated since ancient times. A three-hour soaking in water removes a bitter taste. Occasionally eaten roasted as a snack.

 

Mame-Kogi - Miso made from soy beans.

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Manioc - A root with a crisp white flesh. There are two main categories of manioc: sweet and bitter. Bitter maniocs are toxic until cooked. Manioc is used to make "cassreep" and "tapioca." Also called "cassava."

 

Marrow Bean - A type of white bean that is generally dried before use.

 

Marrow Squash - Also known as "vegetable marrow," this oval squash-like gourd, which is related to the zucchini, has a bland flavor and is often stuffed with a meat filling.

 

Matai - The nut-like kernel of a water plant that grows in southeast Asia. The flesh is white, crunchy, crisp, juicy and a somewhat sweet nutty flavor. More commonly known as "water chestnut."

 

Mexican Potato - Large bulbous root vegetable with a thin brown skin and a white crunchy flesh with a texture similar to water chestnut. It has a sweet, nutty flavor and can be eaten raw or cooked. Also called "Jicama."

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Miso - A paste of fermented soybeans used as a flavoring agent in much of Japanese cuisine. Generally, the lighter the color, the milder the flavor. Miso is easy to digest and is extremely nutritious.

 

Moth Bean - A low, trailing Indian plant of the legume family. The edible beans are mottled grayish-yellow.

 

Mugi-Kogi - Miso made from wheat.

 

Mugwort - A dried green herb that rich in iron and calcium.

 

Mullangi - A type of radish with a sweet flavor and a crisp, juicy white flesh. Used raw, in salads, in stir-fries, and as a garnish. Also called "Oriental radish."

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Mung Bean - A small bean with yellow flesh that is most commonly used to grow bean sprouts. They can also be cooked and eaten or ground into a flour to make noodles.

 

Mushroom - There are thousands of varieties of this fleshy fungus. The cultivated mushroom is commonly available, but other wild varieties include cepe, chanterelle, enokitake, morel, puffball, and shiitake. Many wild mushrooms are poisonous.

 

Mushroom, Hiritake - This fan-shaped mushroom is often grows on rotting tree trunks. This fungus is fairly robust and slightly peppery when raw, but is becomes much milder when cooked. Also known as "oyster mushroom."

 

Mushroom, Oyster - This fan-shaped mushroom is also known as "oyster caps" and "tree mushrooms" because it often grows on rotting tree trunks. This fungus is fairly robust and slightly peppery when raw, but is becomes much milder when cooked.

 

Mushroom, Shiitake - An expensive mushroom that originated in Japan, but is now grown in the U.S. Sometimes called "golden oak," this tasty, dark brown mushroom has a meaty flesh and a full-bodied flavor.

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Mushroom, Shimeji - This fan-shaped mushroom often grows on rotting tree trunks. This fungus is fairly robust and slightly peppery when raw, but is becomes much milder when cooked. Also called "oyster mushroom."

 

Muskmelon - Muskmelons are called "cantaloupes" in North America, but they are not actually cantaloupes. True cantaloupes are European and are not exported to the U.S. The light orange flesh is mild, sweet, and very juicy.

 

Mustard Greens - The peppery leaves of the mustard plant. Mustard greens can be steamed, sautéed, or simmered

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Mustard Spinach - An herb of the mustard family whose leaves are cooked and eaten like spinach. Americans cultivate this plant for its leaves; Asians cultivate it also for its thick, tuberous crown, which they pickle. Also called "tendergreens."

 

Natto - Soy beans that have been steamed, fermented, and mashed until they have a glutinous texture and a strong cheese-like flavor. Popular condiment in Japan. Often served at breakfast over rice or mixed with chives, mustard, and soy sauce.

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Navy Bean - A small white legume that takes its name from the fact that the U.S. Navy has served it as a staple since the 1800's. Used widely in canned pork and beans and in Boston baked beans.

 

New Zealand Spinach - This plant, brought to England by Captain Cook, looks and tastes like spinach. Its leaves are covered with minute dots that reflect the sun. Also called "tetragone" and "New Zealand Ice Plant).

 

Nori - A nutritious dried seaweed that is normally sold in tissue-thin sheets. It has a sweet flavor and a dark purple color. Used to wrap rice balls and sushi. Usually toasted lightly before use.

 

Okara - The ground-up byproduct that results from the production of tofu.

 

Okra - A tall plant from the mallow family that produces an edible pod containing a gooey, mucilaginous flesh with seeds. Often called "gumbo" because is used in gumbos, soups and stews. Okra serves to thicken the liquid in which it is cooked.

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Onion - This underground bulb is related to leeks, garlic, and chives and is prized for its distinct, pungent flavor and aroma. There are two types: green ("scallions") and dry onions. The white-skinned onion has the mildest flavor of the onions.

 

Onion, Cocktail - Tiny pearl onions that are mild-flavored and about the size of a marble. Used as a garnish in certain cocktails.

 

Oriental Radish - This radish has a sweet flavor and a crisp, juicy white flesh. Used raw, in salads, in stir-fries, and as a garnish. Also called "daikon," meaning "big root" in Japanese.

 

Oyster Plant - Also known as "salsify," this biennial herb is cultivated for its root which is used as a vegetable. Its taste hints of a delicately flavored oyster. Can be found in the U.S. in Spanish, Italian, and Greek markets.

 

Pak Choi - This variety of cabbage has crinkly, thick veined leaves which are thin, crisp, and delicately mild. Choose firm, tightly packed heads with crisp, green-tipped leaves. Also called "Chinese cabbage."

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Parsley Root - A parsley subspecies grown for its beige carrot-like root which tastes somewhat like a cross between a carrot and celery. Used in stews and soups. Also eaten as a vegetable.

 

Parsnip - The edible creamy-white root of the parsnip plant. Used as a vegetable and prepared using just about any cooking method. The sweet flavor of the parsnip develops only after the first frost, when the cold converts its starch into sugar.

 

Pe-Tsai - This form of Chinese cabbage features an oval-shaped heart with very tightly closed leaves. It can be prepared in any manner appropriate for other green cabbages. Also used raw in salads and marinated in a manner similar to red cabbage.

 

Pea - Peas are popular members of the legume family. There are many varieties of peas, some of which were cultivated by the Greeks and Romans long before Christian times. Peas are a fair source of protein, iron, and vitamin A.

 

Piccalilli Pepper - A highly seasoned pickled vegetable relish. The vegetables can include cucumber, cauliflower, beans, onions, sweet peppers, etc.

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Pigeon Pea - A tiny grayish-yellow legume that can be eaten raw but is more often dried and split. Popular in the southern states, pigeon peas are prepared in a manner similar to other dried beans.

 

Pink Bean - A reddish-brown dried bean used to make refried beans and chili con carne. This bean, which is popular in the western U.S., can be used as a substitute for "pinto beans" in just about any dish.

 

Pinto Bean - A pale pink bean with streaks of reddish-brown. Also called "red Mexican beans," these beans are interchangeable with the pink bean and are used just as often in popular dishes such as refried beans and chili con carne.

 

Plantain - The fruit of a large tree-like tropical herb. Plantains belong to the banana family, but are larger, starchier, and not as sweet. It has a squash-like flavor and is used much like a potato. Also called the "cooking banana."

 

Pokeberry Shoots - Shoots from the pokeweed shrub, a native of North America. The root is poisonous. The young leafy shoots are picked and cooked the same way as asparagus, except that it is boiled twice (each time in fresh water).

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Potato - The edible tuber of a plant from the nightshade family. "Russet" or "Idaho" potatoes have a long, rounded shape and many eyes. The less starchy medium-sized "round whites" and "round reds" are also called "boiling potatoes."

 

Potato Flour - This very fine gluten-free flour is made from cooked, dried, and ground potatoes. Also called "potato starch." Used as a thickening agent and in some baked goods. Corn flour and starch has replaced potato flour for the most part.

 

Potato Starch - This very fine gluten-free flour is made from cooked, dried, and ground potatoes. Also called "potato flour." Used as a thickening agent and in some baked goods. Corn flour and corn starch have pretty much taken its place today.

 

Pumpkin - A large orange gourd related to the muskmelon and the squash. Pumpkins are popular in pies, but can be prepared like any winter squash. The seeds, which are known as "pepitas," are often husked and roasted to produce a nutty snack food.

 

Raddicchio - A red-leafed Italian chicory that is most commonly used as a salad green.

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Radish - A popular salad vegetable that is the root of a plant from the mustard family. The flavor of radish can vary from mild to peppery, depending on the variety and the age.

 

Rag Gourd - The fruit of any of several tropical vines of the gourd family. The dried insides of these gourds can be used as a sponge. Also called the "sponge gourd."

 

Red Bean - Also known as "Mexican chili beans," are a favorite for making refried beans and chili with beans. Popular in Mexico and throughout the Southwest, these beans are readily available in most markets.

 

Red Pepper - A hot red pepper powder made chiefly from the dried ripe pepper Caspsicum frutescens. While very hot to most people, it is not as hot as chili pepper, which is sometimes sold as cayenne. Also called "cayenne."

 

Refried Beans - Also known as "frijoles," refried beans are "pink beans," "pinto beans," or "red beans" that have been mashed then fried, often in lard.

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Rhubarb - The rhubarb is a very tart member of the buckwheat family. It is generally eaten as a fruit but is actually a vegetable. It is used in sauces, jams, and desserts. Rhubarb leaves contain the toxin "oxalic acid" and should not be eaten.

 

Rocket - This slightly bitter, aromatic salad green has a peppery mustard flavor. Look for bright green, fresh-looking leaves. Makes a lively addition to salads, soups, and sautéed vegetables. Also called "arugula."

 

Romaine Lettuce - Also called "cos," this variety of lettuce is long and cylindrical. Its broad, crisp leaves are used in Caesar salads.

 

Roman Bean - Also known as "Cranberry beans," these beans are buff-colored and feature reddish streaks. Used to add interest and visual appeal to salads and dishes like succotash.

 

Roquette - This slightly bitter, aromatic salad green has a peppery mustard flavor. Look for bright green, fresh-looking leaves. Makes a lively addition to salads, soups, and sautéed vegetables. Also called "arugula."

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Rugula - This slightly bitter, aromatic salad green has a peppery mustard flavor. Look for bright green, fresh-looking leaves. Makes a lively addition to salads, soups, and sautéed vegetables. Also called "arugula."

 

Rutabaga - A root vegetable from the mustard family that resembles a large turnip. Also known as "Swedish turnips," this vegetable can be prepared any way that turnips can be cooked.

 

Salsify - Also known as the "oyster plant," this biennial herb is cultivated for its root which is used as a vegetable. Its taste hints of a delicately flavored oyster. Can be found in the U.S. in Spanish, Italian, and Greek markets.

 

Sauerkraut - German for "sour cabbage." Made by combining cabbage, salt, and occasionally other spices and permitting the mixture to ferment. Though thought of as a German invention, this pickled food was eaten in China over 2,000 years ago.

 

Savoy Cabbage - A loose, full headed, and mellow-flavored cabbage that is considered by many to be the finest cabbage for cooking.

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Scallion - Also called "spring onions," these are very young ordinary onions (such as "shallots") picked when beds of onions need to be thinned.

 

Scallop Squash - A flat, whitish variety of squash that features a scalloped edge. Also known as "cymling" and "pattypan squash."

 

Scorzonera - Also called "black salsify," this is a black-skinned variety of salsify. Most varieties of this vegetable are grayish or pale golden in color.

 

Seaweed - Any of a multitude of sea plants from the algae family. Used in soups, as vegetables, in teas, in shushi, and as a seasoning. Seaweed is a rich source of iodine. A seaweed called "carrageen," is used in McDonald's McLean hamburger.

 

Sesbania Flower - The edible flower of a tree native to the South Pacific and pasts of Asia. Especially popular as a food in the Philippines. Also called "Katuray."

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Shallot - The mild-flavored cousin to the onion, chive, leek, and garlic. The bulb is edible and is used like onions or garlic. The green Tops are harvested and marketed as "scallions."

 

Sicama - Large bulbous root vegetable with a thin brown skin and a white crunchy flesh with a texture similar to water chestnut. It has a sweet, nutty flavor and can be eaten raw or cooked. Also called "Jicama."

 

Skunk Cabbage - A perennial herb of the arum family. Its thick leaf stalk is used in salads after it has been boiled in two or more changes of water. Also known as "swamp cabbage."

 

Snap Bean - A small green bean that is eaten in its long green pod. The snap bean used to have a fibrous "string" down the center of the pod; this characteristic has been bred out of the species. Also called "green bean" and "string bean."

 

Soy Flour - A very high-protein, low carbohydrate flour made from soybeans. Soy flour has approximately twice the protein of wheat flour.

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Soy Milk - This milky, iron-rich liquid is the product of pressing cooked and ground soybeans. Soy milk is higher in protein than cow's milk. It is cholesterol-free and low in calcium, fat, and sodium.

 

Soybean - The world's most important bean is the low carbohydrate, high-protein soybean. This inexpensive, yet nutritious legume is used to make soybean oil, soy flour, soy sauce, miso, tamari, and tofu. Can also be used like any other bean.

 

Soybean Curd Cake - A low-calorie, high-protein, cholesterol-free food made from curdled soy milk. It is creamy white with a firmness that varies from soft to firm. Should be kept refrigerated. The water it is packed in should be changed daily.

 

Spaghetti Squash - This creamy-yellow watermelon-shaped squash is so named because its flesh, when cooked, separates into yellow-gold spaghetti-like strands. Avoid greenish squash (indicating immaturity).

 

Spinach - An annual potherb from southwestern Asia grown for its leafy green leaves. Spinach can be used raw, or cooked by boiling or sautéing. Its leaves contains small amounts of oxalic acid which gives spinach a slightly bitter flavor.

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Split Peas - A variety of yellow or green field pea that is grown specifically for drying. These peas are often dried and split along a natural seam, whereupon they are called "split peas" and are used in soups and other dishes.

 

Sponge Gourd - The fruit of any of several tropical vines of the gourd family. The dried insides of these gourds can be used as a sponge. Also called the "luffah."

 

Squash Seeds - The edible seeds of the pumpkin. These seeds are hulled to reveal a green seed with a delicate nutty flavor. These seeds are often roasted and salted. Also called "pepitas," these seeds are popular in Mexican cookery.

 

String Bean - A small bean that is eaten in its long green pod. Named after the fibrous "string" that used to grow down the center of the pod; this characteristic has since been bred out of the species. Also called "green beans" and "snap beans."

 

Succotash - A dish composed of a combination of lima beans and corn.

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Sugar Beet - A type of beet with a very high sugar content that is cultivated primarily for making sugar. Most varieties of sugar beet are white inside and out and can be cooked and eaten as a vegetable, just like ordinary garden beets.

 

Sugar Cane - A tall grass of tropical and warm regions with tough, jointed stalks that can be processed to produce sugar.

 

Summer Squash - The fruit of various members of the gourd family. Summer squash has a thin edible skin, soft seeds, high water content, and a mild flavor.

 

Sunchoke - This vegetable is a member of the sunflower family i s also known as a "sunchoke" and has a flesh that is nutty, sweet, and crunchy. Also called "Jerusalem artichoke," although it is not an artichoke.

 

Swamp Cabbage - A perennial herb of the arum family. Its thick leaf stalk is used in salads after it has been boiled in two or more changes of water. Also known as "skunk cabbage."

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Swedish Turnip - A root vegetable from the mustard family that resembles a large turnip. This vegetable can be prepared any way that turnips can be cooked. Also called "Swedish turnips."

 

Sweet Pepper - Any of a wide variety of mildly-flavored peppers, including "bell peppers," "pimiento," "bull's horn," "Cubanell," and the "sweet banana pepper."

 

Sweet Potato - There are many varieties of sweet potato, which are in-appropriately called (and labeled) "yams," which they are not. True yams are unrelated to sweet potatoes.

 

Swiss Chard - Another name for "chard," a type of beet that doesn't develop the swollen, fleshy roots of ordinary beets. This vegetable is grown for its large leaves which are used much like other green vegetables.

 

Table Queen Squash - An oval winter squash with a ribbed, dark green skin and slightly sweet orange flesh. May be eaten baked or directly from the shell. Also known as "acorn squash."

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Tamarind - Also called an "Indian Date," this large pod features small seeds and a pulp that is extremely sour when dried. Used in East India and the Middle East the way lemon juice is used in the West. Used in chutneys, curries, and preserves.

 

Taro - A high-starch tuber grown in West Africa. The American variety is called "dasheen." Although acrid in the raw state, taro has a nut-like flavor when cooked. "Poi" is made from taro root. Taro can be boiled, fried, baked, and used in soup.

 

Taro Leaf - The large "elephant ear" leaves of the taro that are edible when young.

 

Tendergreens - An herb of the mustard family whose leaves are cooked and eaten like spinach. Americans cultivate this plant for its leaves; Asians cultivate it also for its thick, tuberous crown, which they pickle. Also called "mustard greens."

 

Tofu - A low-calorie, high-protein, cholesterol-free food made from curdled soy milk. It is creamy white with a sliceable firmness that varies from soft to firm. Tofu should be kept refrigerated: the water it is packed in should be changed daily.

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Tomato Paste - The paste that results from cooking tomatoes for several hours, then straining them and reducing them to a thick red, richly flavored concentrate.

 

Tomato Puree - Tomatoes that have been cooked briefly, then strained.

 

Tomato Sauce - A slightly thinner tomato puree, often mixed with seasonings to facilitate their use in other sauces and dishes.

 

Tree Fern - Any of various ferns, mostly tropical, that grow as large as trees, sending up a straight trunk-like stem.

 

Tree Oyster Mushroom - This fan-shaped mushroom is often grows on rotting tree trunks. This fungus is fairly robust and slightly peppery when raw, but is becomes much milder when cooked. Also known as "oyster mushroom."

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Tunka - The melon-like fruit of a tropical Asian vine belonging to the gourd family. Also called "white gourd."

 

Turnip - A cool-weather, white-fleshed root vegetable that is easy to grow. The so-called "yellow turnip" is actually a rutabaga. Choose smaller turnips because young turnips have a delicate, somewhat sweet flavor that becomes stronger with age.

 

Turnip Greens - The green Tops of the turnip plant. These greens start out slightly sweet, but become stronger-tasting and tougher with age. These greens may be served boiled, sautéed, steamed, or stir-fried.

 

Turnip-Rooted Parsley - A parsley subspecies grown for its beige carrot-like root which tastes somewhat like a cross between a carrot and celery. Used in stews and soups. Also eaten as a vegetable. Also called "parsley root."

 

Turtle Beans - Also known as "black beans" and "black turtle beans," these beans have black skin, cream-colored flesh, and a sweet flavor that forms the base for black bean soup.

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Vanilla - There are over 20,000 types of orchid, but only one produces anything edible--the vanilla plant. "Vanilla extract" comes from macerating beans into an alcohol/water solution. "Imitation vanilla" comes from treated wood-pulp byproducts.

 

Vegetable Marrow - This edible squash-like gourd, also known as "marrow squash," is related to the zucchini. It has a bland flavor and is often stuffed with a meat filling.

 

Vegetable Oyster Plant - Also known as "salsify," this biennial herb is cultivated for its root which is used as a vegetable. Its taste hints of a delicately flavored oyster. Can be found in the U.S. in Spanish, Italian, and Greek markets.

 

Vine Spinach - An edible leaf from a tropical plant that is cultivated in certain parts of France. Vine spinach may be prepared in any manner appropriate for spinach. Also called "basella."

 

Wakami - A dried seaweed. Wakami is soaked in cold water before it is served. It is often served with cucumbers, miso, and vinegar. Also used in soups. Popular in Japanese cooking.

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Water Chestnut - The nut-like kernel of a water plant that grows in southeast Asia. The flesh is white, crisp, and juicy and has a bland, somewhat sweet nutty flavor. Their crunchy texture makes them popular in stir-fried dishes.

 

Water Convulvolus - A perennial herb of the arum family. Its thick leaf stalk is used in salads after it has been boiled in two or more changes of water. Also known as "swamp cabbage."

 

Watercress - A member of the mustard family that grows in running water. Watercress has small, crisp, green leaves and a pungent flavor with a slightly bitter peppery flavor. Use in salads, in cream soups, and to garnish vegetables.

 

Watermelon - Originally from Africa, this melon has a sweet, moist red flesh. Asians roast the seeds, and pickled watermelon rind is popular in some parts of the world. If slapping the watermelon returns a resounding hollow thump, it is ripe.

 

Wax Bean - A pale yellow variety of the green bean that is eaten with its pod."

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Welsh Onion - A species of onion with a bunching, leek-like interleaved bulb and tubular leaves. It is a perennial evergreen with a delicate flavor that can be used by breaking off leaves as the plant matures. Also called the "everlasting onion."

 

White Bean - A rather generic term that refers to any of several dried beans, including "marrow beans," "great northern beans," "navy beans," and "pea beans."

 

White-Flowered Gourd - A common variety of hard-shelled gourd, also called "bottle gourd" and "Calabash gourd." This gourd is used in the West Indies to produce a very popular syrup. Its shell is often used to create bowls and other utensils.

 

Winged Bean - A fast-growing, high-protein legume. Also called the "goa bean." This bean is entirely edible, including the shoots, flower, roots, leaves, pods, and seeds. Tastes somewhat like a cross between the cranberry bean and the green bean.

 

Winter Radish - A large plant thought to be of Oriental origin. These plants are grown chiefly for their pungent peppery root, which can get up to 2 pounds or more. This radish is popular in Germany and in the East. Also called "black radish."

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Witloof Chickory - The largest and most popular variety of "chicory," a vegetable with long silvery-white leaves. Used in salads and as a seasoning.

 

Yam - There are over 150 species of yams grown throughout the world. Most of "yams" sold in the U.S., however, are actually sweet potatoes. Yams are higher in sugar that sweet potatoes. Used in soups and stews, mashed, and fried.

 

Yam Bean Tuber - Large bulbous root vegetable with a thin brown skin and a white crunchy flesh with a texture similar to water chestnut. It has a sweet, nutty flavor and can be eaten raw or cooked. Also called "Jicama."

 

Yardlong Bean - A pencil-thin legume from the black-eye pea family that looks like a very long green bean. These beans can grow a yard long, but are usually picked at 18" or less. These beans are slightly less sweet and crispy as the green bean.

 

Yokan - A popular Japanese confection made from adzuki-bean paste and agar. Adzuki beans are small, dried, russet-colored beans with a sweet flavor. Agar is a thickening agent made from seaweed.

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Yuca - The yuca is a root with a crisp white flesh. There are two main categories of yuca: sweet and bitter. Bitter yucas are toxic until cooked. Yuca is used to make "cassreep" and "tapioca." Also called "cassava."

 

Zucchini - A popular summer squash with an off-white flesh with a light, somewhat bland flavor. Zucchini can be steamed, grilled, sautéed, deep-fried, and baked.