Irrigation | Horticulture
The economic life of the Mizos has always been centered around jhum or shifting
The crops grown in the jhum are mixed. The principal crop is paddy and
others are maize, cucumber, beans, arum, ginger, mustard, sesame, cotton
etc. After clearing the burnt jhum, seeds for crops other than paddy are
sown. Towards the end of April near the full moon time, paddy is sown. Mainly two types of paddy seeds are sown in the same field - early
paddy and principal paddy. Yield of early paddy is rather poor but it
ripens early and provides sustenance till the principal paddy is harvested.
There is vast scope for cultivation of tapioca, sugarcane, cotton, pulses and
oilseeds in the state.
Some pulses like
cowpea, rice beans and French beans are cultivated in the jhums. Oilseeds crops like sesame, mustard and soybean are growing well in the
In Mizoram the crops totally depend on monsoon water due to non availability of
irrigation facilities. Hence yield per hectare is quite low. Champhai, North
Vanlaiphai, Mat valley are some of the areas taken up for
According to the demarcation of 15 agro-climatic regions in the country,
Mizoram falls under the Eastern Himalayan Zone. It enjoys a tropical and
sub-tropical climate where most of the horticultural crops flourish. Of
the total 21 lakh hectare of land in the state, about 4.40 lakh hectare are suitable for
In horticulture, the principal crops now grown in Mizoram are orange, banana and
pineapple. In recent years there has been a sharp increase in the area and
production of these crops. Of the total area of 21,087 sq km in the state,
bamboo orchards occupy an area of 7882 sq km.
The climate in the state is suitable for the cultivation of spices.
Ginger, turmeric, chilli, pepper, cinnamon, large cardamom and citronella grow
very well in the state. At present ginger, turmeric and chillies are
commonly cultivated. On hill slopes, cinnamon of the wild variety is
available in plenty. Large cardamom is thriving well in higher altitudes
of 600-1500m. Ginger is traditionally cultivated in the jhum lands.
The state has also good prospects for cash crops like coffee, rubber and
Rubber grew indigenously in Mizoram as the land and the climate are
suitable for rubber cultivation. The Rubber Board has opened a sub-station at
Kolasib. Tea is traditionally grown in Mizoram in small
homestead plots for family consumption only. The agro-climatic condition
of the state is suitable for tea.